The Effects of Feedback on Students Achievement Goals: Interaction between Comparative Reference and Regulatory Focus

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Science , University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of educational psychology Faculty of psychology and Educational science. University, Semnan of Semnan, Iran

3 Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Science , University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran.


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the type of feedback and regulatory focus and interaction on the alignment of student achievement goals. This study is an applied study. An experimental research method with a four-group pretest-posttest design was used. The statistical population of this study includes all sixth grade students of schools in district 6 of Mashhad in the academic year 2019-2020. A random cluster sampling method was used. The participants were 128 students and were randomly divided into four groups. Before and after the intervention, they all completed the Elliott and McGregor Achievement Goal Orientation Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the factor covariance analysis model and SPSS-24 software. Results showed that self-referential feedback increased approach achievement goal orientation in conditions that served promotion, but did not increase avoidance achievement goal orientation in conditions that served prevention. Normative feedback increased approach-performance goal orientation when it was the promotion focus and avoidance-performance goal orientation when it was the prevention focus. According to the results of this study, it can be said that feedback is one of the most important factors in the formation of student achievement goals. The type of selective orientation leads students to pursue different behaviors and emotional consequences. The practical implications of the results were discussed.


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