Psychometric Properties of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales(RIAS)- Second Edition in students with Intellectual Developmental Disorder

Document Type : Research Paper


1 phd Department of Exceptional Children Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University. Tehran.Iran

2 Ph.D. in Psychology and Exceptional Children Education, Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch

3 Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The Aim of this study was "Psychometric Properties of the Second Edition of the Reynolds Intellectual assessment scales in Students with Intellectual Developmental Disorder. This research is a methodological and developmental design. The second version of the Reynolds Intellectual assessment Scale has 8 sub-tests (4 main sub-tests and 4 Additional sub-tests), which provides 5 IQs and 8T scores. After translating and Accommodation, as well as performing in the pilot phase (30 people), analyzes were conducted at the level of the question and the questions were sorted out. Then a try out version (100) and a final version (150) were implemented with purposeful sampling on students with intellectual disability. Psychometric analyzes were carried out in the field of Reliability (internal consistency, halving, stability coefficient) and validity (concurrent validity, diagnostic validity). The findings show that this tool has psychometric soundness in students with intellectual disability, and given its rapid implementation, it can be used as a powerful and reliable tool for screening and
identification purposes and research.


 Abedi, Mohammad Reza, Sadeghi, Ahmad, Rabiei, Mohammad (2013), Standardization of the Wechsler Children's IQ Test (Fourth Edition) in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Quarterly Personality and Individual Differences, Second Year, No. 3. (Persian)
Brueggeman, E. R, Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2006). The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and assessment of intellectual giftedness. Gifted Education International, 21, 127-136.
Beaujean, Alexander, A., McGlaughlin, Margulies, Sean, M., Alison, S., (2009). Factorial Validity ofThe Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales For Refereed Student. Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 46(10), 932-950.
Beaujean, Alexander, A., McGlaughlin., (2015). Comparing Test Score Using Information From Criterion-Related Validity Studies. Applied Neuropsychology: CHILD,1-11.
Beaujean, Alexander, A., Firmin, Michael, W., Michonski, Jared, D., Berry, Theodore., Johnson, Courtney., (2010). A Multitrait–Multimethod Examination of the ReynoldsIntellectual Assessment Scales in a College Sample. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 17(3) 347– 360.
Bracken, B. A. (2005). Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test. In R. A. Spies, & B. S. Plake (Eds.),The sixteenth mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Delaver, Ali (2017). Theoretical and practical foundations of research in humanities. Tehran: sokhan Press. (Persian)
Dombrowski, S.C., & Mrazik, M. (2008). Review of the test Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 23, 223-230.
Dombrowski, S.C., & Gischlar, K. L. (2014). Ethical and empirical considerations in the identification of learning disabilities. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30, 68-82.
Edwards, Oliver, W.,Paulin, Rachel, V,. (2007). Referred Students’ Performance on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children−Fourth Edition. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. Volume 25 Number 4, 334-340.
Evers, A., Sijtsma, K., Lucassen, W., & Meijer, R. R.(2010). The Dutch review process for evaluating the quality of psychological tests: History, Procedure, and results. International Journal of Testing, 10, 295-317.
Elliot, R.W. (2004) Test review: The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology,19, 325-328.
Fischer, R., & Milfont, T. L. (2010). Sandardization in psychological research. International Journal Of Psychological Reaearch, 88-96.
GholamiTouranDorshti, Marzieh; Delavar; Ali; Pasha Sharifi; Hasan; Sharifi; Nastaran (2017). construct and normalization of cognitive ability test for children; Journal of Psychometrics, Islamic Azad University, Roudhen Branch, Volume 6, Number 22, Page 7-18.(Persian)
Goldstein, S., & Reynolds, C. R. (1999). Handbook of neurdevelopmental and genetic disorders in children. New York, NY: Guilford.
Goldstein, S., Princiotta, D., & Naglieri, J. A. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of intelligence. Evolutionary theory, historical perspective, and current concepts. New York, NY: Springer.
Gliniak, Racheal R.,(2014). A comparison of scores on the RIAS and WISC-IV in referred sample. Thesis submitted to Graduate College of Marshal University.
Geisinger, K. F., Bracken, B. A., Carlson, J. F., Hansen, J.-I. C.,. Kuncel, N. A., Reise, S. P., & Rodriguez, M. C. (2013). APA Handbook of Testing and Assessment in Psychology (Vol. Test Theory and Testing and Assessment in Industrial and Organizational Psychology). Washington: American Psychological Association.
Glover, T., & Albers, A. (2007). Considerations for evaluatin universal screening assessments. Journal of School Psychology, 45,7−25 (Available online September 7, 2006).
Howell, K. E. (2012). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
Hagmann-von, Arx. P, Lemola, S, and Grob, A.(2016). Does IQ = IQ? Comparability of Intelligence Test Scores in Typically Developing Children,journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1073191116662911.
Hassanzadeh, Saeed, Minaei, Asghar (2001). Hasanzadeh S, Minaei A. Adaptation and Standardization of the Test of TOLD-P: 3 for Farsi - Speaking Children of Tehran. JOEC. 2002; 1 (2):119-134 (Part II). (Persian)
Hooman, Hyderali (1391). Practical Guide to Thesis Writing. Tehran: PeykFarhang Press. (Persian)
Hagmann-von, A., Gygi, J. T., Weidmann, R., & Grob, A. (2016). esting Relations of Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence and the Incremental Predictive Validity of Conscientiousness and Its Facets on Career Success in a Small Sample of German and Swiss Workers. Submitted to Personality and Social Psychology, 108-117.
Hashemi, Seyyed Ali, Kamkari, Kambiz, Shokrzadeh, Shohre (2018). The Psychometric Properties of Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition in student’s Sampad. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly. 9(1), 137-148. (Persian)
Hakiminezhad; Farnaz, Parand; Akram (2016); Adoptation and Validation of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skill Tool for 4 to 6 years-old children; Journal of Applied Psychological Research; 7(2), 141-152. (Persian)
Irwin, Julie, K., Joschko, Michael & Kerns, Kimberly, A., (2014). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) in Canadian Children. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. Vol. 28, No. 8, 1258–1277
Jeste, D. V., Lieberman, J. A., Fassler, D., & Peele, R. (2013). DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS.washington: American Psychiatric Association.
Kamphaus, R. W., Winsor, A. P., Rowe, E. W., &Kim,S. (2012). A history of intelligence test interpretation. In D. P. Flangan& P. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectualassessment (3rd. pp.56-70). New York: Guilford Press.
Kamkari, Kambiz, Afrouz, Gholamali (2009), Psychometric and Intelligence Testing Principles (Tehran-Stanford Intelligence Test - Special Needs Pediatric Examination), Tehran University Press. (Persian)
Kamkari, Kambiz (2007), Standardization of the fifth edition of Stanford-Binet Scales, Ph.D., University of Tehran. (Persian)
Kamkari, Kambiz, Afrouz, Gholamali (2009). Intelligence and Creativity, Tehran University Press. (Persian)
Kamkari, Kambiz, Shakrzadeh, Shohreh and Kiomarsi, Firuz (2007). Measurement and Assessment(The Ficused Of Intelligence Construct). Islamshahr Islamic Azad University Press. (Persian)
Khodayarifard; Mohammad, Ghobari bonab; Bagher, Akbari zardkhaneh; Saeed, Zamanpoor; Enayatolah, Derakhshan; Maryam, Mosavi; Samira sadat (2015); Iranian Positive Thinking Scale (IPTS): Development and Standardization; Journal of Applied Psychological Research; 5(4), 103-130. doi:10.22059/japr.2015.55054. (Persian)
Pashashrifi, Hasan, NajafiZand, Jafar (2014). Statistical Methods in Behavioral Sciences. Tehran: Sokhan Press. (Persian)
Krach, Kathleen, S., Loe, Scott, A., Jones, Paul, W., Farrally, Autumn.,(2009). Convergent Validity of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) Using the Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability, Third Edition (WJ-III)With University Students.Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. Vol. 27 (5),355-365
Kettler R. J., Glover T. A., Albers C. A., Feeney-Kettler K. A. (Eds.), Universal screening in educational settings: Evidence-based decision making for schools (pp. 3-16). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/14316-001 
Keith, T. Z., & Reynolds, M. R. (2012). Using confirmatory factor analysis to aid in understanding the constructs measured by intelligence tests. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (3rd ed., pp. 758–799). New York: Guilford Press.
Kothari, R. C. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.
Minaei, Asghar, Ahmad Panah, Mohammad and Hooman, Heidar Ali (2005). Standardization of Williams Intelligence Test for People with Visual Impairment. Exceptional children's magazine. No. 16, 115-134. (Persian)
Miles, Sandra, Fulbrook, Paul, Mainwaring-Magi, Debra, (2016). Evaluation of standardized Instruments for Use in Universal Screening of Very Early School-Age Children: Suitability, Technical Adequacy, and Usability. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 1-21.
Nelson, J. M., &Canivez, G. L (2012). Examination of the structural, convergent, and incremental validity of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales(RIAS) with a clinical sample. Psychological assessment,24, 129-140.
Patric, M. J., & Randy, F. G. (2017). A Review of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition, and Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test, Second Edition. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 32, 176-180.
 Price, R. L. (2017). Methodology in the Social Sciences. (D. A. Kenny, & T. D. Little, Eds.) New York London: THE GUILFORD PRESS.
Reynolds, C. R., & Fletcher-Janzen, E. (2007). ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Special Education: A Reference for the Education of Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Disabilities and Other Exceptional Individuals (Third Edition ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: JOHN WILEY & SONS.
Spielberger, C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier / Academic Press, Boston, Mass.
Roid, G. H, (2003). Stanford- Binet intelligence scales, fifth edition, technical manual, Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2012). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 99-144). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Shokrzadeh, Shohreh (2013), Standardization of the Third Edition of the WoodcockJohnson Cognitive Ability Test for Primary School Children withLearning Problems, Ph.D., Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. (Persian)
Wilson, K., & Gilmore, L. (2012). Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 22(1), 1-14.