The Relationship between the Components of the Norm Activation Model and Motivation toward Energy Saving through an Electricity Saving Behavior among Families in Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student in Psychology, Psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, University of Payam-e-Noor, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the electricity saving behavior in the heads of households in Tehran, and moral norms and various energy saving  motivations. The present study use a descriptive-correlational design. The statistical population consisted of all the heads of households in Tehran in 2019. In addition, the convenience sampling method was used (N=366). The research instruments consisted of items for assessing Demographic and Housing Characteristics (DHC), the Problem Awareness Scale (PAS), the Ascription of Responsibility and Outcome Efficacy Scale (AROES), the Personal Norms Scale (PNS), the Energy Saving Behavior Scale (ESBS), and the Motivation toward Saving Energy Scale (MTSES). In total, there were 44 items in this survey. The data were collected online and  via a paper-pencil form. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), SPSS ver. 25 and Smart PLS ver. 3 were used to analyze the data. The findings showed that of the demographic variables, only marital status was connected with the electricity saving behavior. The problem awareness, and ascription of responsibility and outcome efficacy had a direct and significant relationship with personal norms; and personal norms were directly related to the electricity saving behavior. According to the findings, problem awareness, ascription of responsibility and outcome efficacy, and personal norms were connected with the electricity saving behavior through partial mediation of motivation. Lastly, the results showed that integrated, intrinsic, identified and introjected motivations had the most significant relationships with the electricity saving behavior. By strengthening motivation, the components of norm activation model could be transformed into the electricity saving behavior.


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