Psychometric Properties of the General Belongingness Scale in University Students

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational sciences and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor in Educational Psychology, Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational sciences and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


The purpose of the present study was to validate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the General Belongingness Scale in students. This applied study was adopted a psychometric design and its statistical population consisted of the students of the Birjand University in for the 2017-18the academic year1396-97. In two studies, 164 (108 girls females and 56 boysmales) and 236 (156 girls females and 80 boysmales) students of the Birjand University were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The dData were collected through using the General Belongingness Scale (GBS), The the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (Ditommaso, & [HE1] et al, 2004), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress  Scales (Lovibond & Lovibond,1995), and the Life satisfaction Test (Diener & et al,1985). The iInternal consistency, as well as the exploratory and  and confirmatory factor analyses, and the criterion, predictivefactor analysis, criterion, predictive and constructive validity was were evaluated using the SPSS.16 and AMOS.24 software. The results showed that this scale had a two-factor structure with the an explained variance explainedof 56.61%. In addition, t The second-order confirmatory factor analysis was confirmed. The convergent and divergent validity was confirmed in relation tofor social loneliness [HE2] and its predictive validity in relation tofor depression and life satisfaction were all confirmed. There wereas no significant differences based onin terms of age and gender. It seems that the General Belongingness Scale (GBS) has good reliability and validity in with students.


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