Psychological Components Related to Students Success in a Blended Learning Environment

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Psychology, Psychology and Educational science Faculty, university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Educational Science, psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD Student, Department of Educational Science, psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


This study aims to identify the psychological components related to student success in a blended learning environment. The research method is applied , and data collection was conducted using a qualitative approach through a systematic review method. To achieve the goal of the study, a systematic and comprehensive review of the research background was conducted based on Sandlowski and Barroso's (2006) seven-step model. For this purpose, resources from databases (Elsevier, Scopus, ProQuest, Eric, Emerald, Springer) and related keywords were searched. After reviewing 480 papers from theoretical and scientific sources related to the research topic based on specific criteria and removing unrelated papers, a full review of the remaining 58 studies was performed. The systematic review of the research background resulted in the identification of 5 components, 9 concepts, and 75 codes. The results of the meta-synthesis indicate that the psychological components of students who want to succeed in the blended learning environment at the university include the following: emotional strategies and components (positive emotions and motivational beliefs), communication (connection resources, communication skills), cognitive (high-level thinking and academic engagement), metacognitive (self-management in learning and self-perception of learning), and personality.Among these, the role of emotional and metacognitive strategies and components is more important than others. Therefore, they have a greater impact on the success of blended learning.


آزاددیسفانی، ز.، کارشکی، ح. امین یزدی، ا.، و عبدخدایی، م. س. (۱۳۹۹). اثربخشی آموزش تلفیقی مبتنی بر شبکۀ اجتماعی بر خودتنظیمی تحصیلی، شناخت اجتماعی و عملکرد تحصیلی. مجلۀ مطالعات آموزش و یادگیری. ۱۲(۱)، 81-53.
ارجمند، ح.، و صیف، م. ح. (1395). عوامل مؤثر بر تمایل به استفاده از یادگیری ترکیبی در بین دانشجویان دولتی و پرستاری شهر فسا. سومین کنفرانس بین‌المللی رویکردهای نوین در علوم انسانی. تهران، ایران. 2 دی ماه.
بازرگان، ع.، و بازرگان، ک. (۱۳۹۹). پند آزادوار کرونا به آموزش عالی برای استفاده از فناوری دیجیتال: ضرورت برنامه‌ریزی برای تحول دیجیتال در دانشگاه‌ها در پساکرونا. جستارهای در آموزش عالی، علم و بحران کرونا در ایران (صص 309-291). تهران: پژوهشکدۀ مطالعات فرهنگی و اجتماعی.
سعید، ن. (۱۳۹۸). تأثیر یادگیری ترکیبی بر خودتعیین‌گری و اشتیاق تحصیلی دانشجویان. رویکردهای نوین آموزشی. ۱۴(۲)، 86-67.
عجم، ع. ا. (1394). بررسی نقش خودکارآمدی تحصیلی و مهارت‌های ارتباطی بین‌فردی بر دیدگاه دانشجویان در ارزشیابی مبتنی بر آموزش تلفیقی. پژوهش در آموزش علوم پزشکی. 7(1)، 12-3.
عجم، ع. ا.، جعفریثانی، ح.، مهرام، ب.، و آهنچیان، م. ر. (1392). بررسی نقش انگیزش تحصیلی و مهارتهای رایانه‌ای دانشجویان در دیدگاه آنان نسبت به رویکرد یادگیری ترکیبی. فصلنامۀ علمی-پژوهشی رهیافتی نو در مدیریت آموزشی. 4(15). 82-63.
کریمی مونقی، ح.، و محسنیزاده، م. (۱۳۹۸). یادگیری تلفیقی و اثربخشی آن در آموزش پرستاری: مطالعۀ مروری. مجلۀ توسعۀ آموزش جندی‌شاپور. ۱۰(۱)، 40-29.
میرمقتدایی، ز.، و احمدی، س. (۱۳۹۸). اثربخشی یادگیری ترکیبی حوزه آموزش پزشکی: تبیین ابعاد و مؤلفه‌ها براساس تجارب ذینفعان. مجلۀ توسعۀ آموزش در علوم پزشکی. ۱۲(۳۳)، 42-33.
نجفی، ح. (۱۳۹۶). رابطۀ بین ابعاد و شاخص‌های آموزش ترکیبی و کیفیت‌بخشی به یادگیری در دانشگاه پیام نور. فصلنامۀ فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در علوم تربیتی. ۷(۴)، 80-59.
نجفی، ح. (۱۳۹۸). ارائۀ مدل علی مؤلفه‌های تشکیل‌دهندۀ یادگیری ترکیبی و هوش هیجانی و تأثیر آن بر عملکرد تحصیلی. مجلۀ ایرانی آموزش در علوم پزشکی. ۱۹(۱)، ۲8۱-۲7۱.
Aali, M., Narenji Thani, F., Keramati, M. R., & Garavand, A. (2020). A model for the effectiveness of e-learning at university. Journal of Information Technology Management. 12(4), 121-140.
Aboagye, E., Yawson, J. A., & Appiah, K. N. (2020). COVID-19 and e-learning: The challenges of students in tertiary institutions. Social Education Research. 2(1), 1-8.
Abrosimova, G., Kondrateva, I., Voronina, E., & Plotnikova, N. (2019). Blended learning in university education. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews. 7(6), 6-10.
Akpan, E. (2015). Blended learning opportunities and challenges in mathematics education: Perspective in higher education. South American Journal of Academic Research. 2(1), 51-60.
Al-Ayed, S., & Al-Tit, A. (2021). Factors affecting the adoption of blended learning strategy. International Journal of Data and Network Science. 5(2), 267-274.
Al-Busaidi, K. A., & Al-Shihi, H. (2012). Key factors to instructors' satisfaction of learning management systems in blended learning. Journal of Computing in Higher Education. 24(1), 18-39.
Almaiah, M. A., Al-Khasawneh, A., & Althunibat, A. (2020). Exploring the critical challenges and factors influencing the e-learning system usage during COVID-19 pandemic. Education and Information Technologies, 25(1), 5261-5280.
Anthony, B., Kamaludin, A., Romli, A., Raffei, A. F. M., Phon, D. N. A. E., Abdullah, A., & Ming, G. L. (2020). Blended learning adoption and implementation in higher education: A theoretical and systematic review. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 1-48. 10.1007/s10758-020-09477-z
Anthony, B. Jr., Kamaludin, A., Romli, A., Mat R., Anis F., Phon, D., …, & Baba, S. (2019). Exploring the role of blended learning for teaching and learning effectiveness in institutions of higher learning: An empirical investigation. Education and Information Technologies. 24(5), 3433–3466.
Anthonysamy, L., Koo, A. C., & Hew, S. H. (2020). Self-regulated learning strategies and non-academic outcomes in higher education blended learning environments: A one decade review. Education and Information Technologies. 25(5), 3677-3704.
Antwi-Boampong, A. (2020). Towards a faculty blended learning adoption model for higher education. Education and Information Technologies. 25(3), 1639–1662.
Asarta, C. J. and Schmidt, J. R. (2020). The effects of online and blended experience on outcomes in a blended learning environment’, Internet and Higher Education. 44, 100708.
Azizi, S. M., Roozbahani, N., & Khatony, A. (2020). Factors affecting the acceptance of blended learning in medical education: application of UTAUT2 model. BMC Medical Education. 20(1), 367-367.
Bahri, A., Idris, I., Muis, H., Arifuddin, M., & Fikri, M. (2021). Blended learning integrated with innovative learning strategy to improve self-regulated learning. International Journal of Instruction. 14(1), 779-794.
Banditvilai, C. (2016). Enhancing students' language skills through blended learning. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 14(3), 220-229.
Barnard-Ashton, P., Koch, L., & Rothberg, A. (2014). The influence of blended learning on student performance in an undergraduate occupational therapy curriculum. South African Journal of Occupational Therapy. 44(1), 75-80.
Berga, K. N., Vadnais, E., Nelson, J., Johnston, S., Buro, K., Hu, R., & Olaiya, B. (2021). Blended learning versus face-to-face learning in an undergraduate nursing health assessment course: A quasi-experimental study. Nurse Education Today. 96 (104622), 1-6.
Bisriyah, M. (2020). Exploring Blended Learning in Higher Education: Different Definitions and Teachers’ Perceptions. JETLe (Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning). 1(2), 38-46.
Blieck, Y., kauwenberghs, k., Zhu, C., Struyven, K., Pynoo, B., & DePryck, K. (2019). Investigating the relationship between success factors and student participation in online and blended learning in adult education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 35(4), 1-15.
Bouguebs R. (2020). Action research on integrating a blended learning reading course in higher education. Journal of Studies in Language, Culture and Society (JSLCS). 3(1), 1-14.
Bouilheres, F., Le, L. T. V. H., McDonald, S., Nkhoma, C., & Jandug-Montera, L. (2020). Defining student learning experience through blended learning. Education and Information Technologies. 25(4), 3049-3069.
Broadbent, J., & Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M. (2018). Profiles in self-regulated learning and their correlates for online and blended learning students. Educational Technology Research and Development. 66(6), 1435–1455.
Camilleri, M. A. (2021). Evaluating service quality and performance of higher education institutions: A systematic review and a post-COVID-19outlook. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences. 13(2), 268-281. 
Charbonneau-Gowdy, P. (2018). Beyond stalemate: Seeking solutions to challenges in online and blended learning programs. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 16(1), 56-66.
Chiu, T., Lin, T., & Lonka, K. (2021). Motivating online learning: The challenges of COVID-19 and beyond. The Asia-pacific Education Researcher. 30(3), 187–190.
Cicha, K., Rizun, M., Rutecka, P., & Strzelecki, A. (2021). COVID-19 and higher education: First-year students' expectations toward distance learning. Sustainability. 13(4), 1889.
Cronje, J. C. (2020). Towards a new definition of blended learning. The Electronic Journal of E-Learning. 18(2), 114-121.
Darmawan, I., Linawati, Wirastuti, N., Nilakusmawati, D., & Raharja, M. (2021). Blended learning approach in algorithm and programming courses. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1722, 012104.
Demirer, V., & Sahin, I. (2013). Effect of blended learning environment on transfer of learning: An experimental study. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 29(6), 518-529.
Dhawan, S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems. 49(1), 5–22.
Elumalai, K. V., Sankar, J. P., Kalaichelvi R., John, J. A., Menon, N., Alqahtani, M. S. M., & Abumelha, M. A. (2020). Factors affecting the quality of e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of higher education students. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research. 19, 731-753.        
Engelbertink, M., Kelders, S., Woudt-Mittendorff, K., & Westerhof, G. (2020). Participatory design of persuasive technology in a blended learning course: A qualitative study. Education and Information Technologies. 25(5), 4115–4138.
Fisher, D., & Kusumah, Y. (2018). Developing student character of preservice mathematics teachers through blended learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1132, 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Sciences and Statistics.
Geraghty, S., & Godwin, H. (2016). Evaluating postgraduate midwifery students' experiences of a model of blended learning. The British Journal of Midwifery. 24(1), 60-63.
Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C. J. Bonk, & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs (pp. 3-21). San Francisco: Pfeiffer Publishing.
Gynther, K. (2016). Design framework for an adaptive mooc enhanced by blended learning: supplementary training and personalized learning for teacher professional development. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 14(1), 15-30.
Halverson, L. R., & Graham, C. R. (2019). Learner engagement in blended learning environments: A conceptual framework. Online Learning. 23(2), 145-178.
Han, F., & Ellis, R. A. (2019). Initial development and validation of the perceptions of the blended learning environment questionnaire. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 38(2), 168-181.
Hande, S. (2014). Strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats of blended learning: students' perceptions. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. 4(3), 336-339.
Handke, L., Klonek, F. E., Parker, S. K., & Kauffeld, S. (2020). Interactive effects of team virtuality and work design on team functioning. Small Group Research. 51(1), 3-47.
Hassani, A. T. S. (2020). Multimedia related vocabulary learning strategies among English as foreign language Algerian students. Journal of Studies in Language, Culture and Society (JSLCS). 3(1), 66-76.
Herrera, L. (2017). Impact of implementing a virtual learning environment (VLE) in the EFL classroom. Ikala. 22(3), 479-498.
Hilliard, A. (2015). Global blended learning practices for teaching and learning, leadership, and professional development. Journal of International Education Research (JIER). 11(3), 179-188.
Huang, C. H. (2021). Using pls-sem model to explore the influencing factors of learning satisfaction in blended learning. Education Sciences. 11(5), 1-17.
Hue Dung, D. T. (2020). The advantages and disadvantages of virtual learning. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME). 10(3), 45-48.
Ibrahim, M., & Cemal Nat, M. (2019). Blended learning motivation model for instructors in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. 16(12), 1-21.
Jakab, I., Grezo, H., & Sevcik, M. (2016). Inquiry based and blended learning using geographical information system. European Conference on e-Learning; Kidmore End: Academic Conferences International Limited.
Jones, K. A., & Sharma, R. S. (2019). An experiment in blended learning: Higher education without lectures? International Journal of Digital Enterprise Technology. 1(3), 241–275.
Jost, N. S., Jossen, S. L., Rothen, N., & Martarelli, C. S. (2021). The advantage of distributed practice in a blended learning setting. Education and Information Technologies. 26, 3097-3113.
Jowsey, T., Foster, G., Cooper-Ioelu, P., & Jacobs, S. (2020). Blended learning via distance in pre-registration nursing education: A scoping review. Nurse Education in Practice. 44, 102775.
Juniati, D., & Huda, H. (2020). The Effect of blended learning model on students' writing skill. Journal of English Education and Technology. 1(3), 154-172.
Kerzic, D., Tomazevic, N., Aristovnik, A., & Umek, L. (2019) Exploring critical factors of the perceived usefulness of blended learning for higher education students. PLoS One. 14(11), 1-18.
Keshavarz, M. H., & Hulus, A. (2019). The effect of students' personality and learning styles on their motivation for using blended learning. Advances in Language and Literary Studies. 10(6), 78-88.
Khlaisang, J., & Likhitdamrongkiat, M. (2015). E-learning system in blended learning environment to enhance cognitive skills for learners in higher education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 174(15), 759-767.
Kintu, M., & Zhu C. (2016). Student characteristics and learning outcomes in a blended learning environment intervention in a Ugandan university. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 14(3), 181-195.
Kintu, M.J., Zhu, C., & Kagambe, E. (2017). Blended learning effectiveness: the relationship between student characteristics, design features and outcomes. Int J Educ Technol High Educ. 14(7), 1-20.
Law, K. M. Y., Geng, S., & Li, T. (2019). Student enrollment, motivation and learning performance in a blended learning environment: The mediating effects of social, teaching, and cognitive presence. Computers & Education. 136(1), 1-12.
Leary, H., & Walker, A. (2018). Meta-analysis and meta-synthesis methodologies: Rigorously piecing together research. Tech Trends. 62(10), 525-534.
Li, L. (2020). An action research of o2o blended learning in the integrated English class under the context of a Chinese private language university. The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning. 8(1), 10-17.
Lim, C. L., Jalil, H. A., Ma'rof, A. M., & Saad, W. (2020). Peer learning, self-regulated learning and academic achievement in blended learning courses: A structural equation modeling approach. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET). 15(3), 110-125.
Lynam, D. R., Miller, J. D., & Derefinko, K. J. (2018). Psychopathy and personality: An articulation of the benefits of a trait‑based approach. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 259–280). USI, Washington.
 Mackey, J., Gilmore, F., Dabner, N., Breeze, D., & Buckley, P. (2012). Blended learning for academic resilience in times of disaster or crisis. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 8(2), 122-135.
Makhdoom, N., Khoshhal, K. I., Algaidi, S., Heissam, K., & Zolaly, M. A. (2013). Blended learning' as an effective teaching and learning strategy in clinical medicine: a comparative cross-sectional university-based study. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 8(1), 12–17.
Melati, I. S., & Harnanik, H. (2021). An analysis of student engagement for online microeconomics class based on ELED. Dinamika Pendidikan. 16(1). 33-43.
Milićević, V., Denić, N., Milićević, Z., Arsić, L., Spasić-Stojković, M., Petković, D., …, & Jovanović, A. (2021). E-learning perspectives in higher education institutions. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 166, 120618.
Müller, A. M., Goh, C., Lim, L. Z., & Gao, X. (2021). COVID-19 emergency E-learning and beyond: Experiences and perspectives of university educators.  19.
Naidu, S. (2021). Building resilience in education systems post-covid-19. Distance Education. 42(1), 1-4.
Namyssova, G., Tussupbekova, G., Helmer, J., Malone, K., Afzal, M., & Jonbekova. D. (2019). Challenges and benefits of blended learning in higher education. International Journal of Technology in Education (IJTE). 2(1), 22-31.
Nazarenko, A. L. (2015). Blended learning vs traditional learning: What works? (A case study research). Social and Behavioral Sciences. 200(2015), 77– 82.
Nortvig, A. M., Petersen, A. K., & Balle, S. H. (2018). A literature review of the factors influencing e-learning and blended learning in relation to learning outcome, student satisfaction and engagement. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 16(1), 46-55.
Obari, H., & Lambacher, S. (2014). Impact of a blended environment with m-learning on EFL skills. In S. Jager, L. Bradley, E. J. Meima, & S. Thouësny (Eds), CALL Design: Principles and Practice; Proceedings of the 2014 EUROCALL Conference (pp. 267-272). The Netherlands: Groningen.
Oliveira, M. M. S., Penedo, A. S. T., & Pereira, V. S. (2018). Distance education: Advantages and disadvantages of the point of view of education and society. Dialogia, São Paulo. 29, 139-152.
Onguko, B., Jepchumba, L., & Gaceri, P. (2013). For us it was a learning experience: Design, development and implementation of blended learning. European Journal of Training and Development. 37(7), 615-634.
Rajesh, P. K., & Sethuraman, K. R. (2020). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges (swoc) of online teaching learning and assessment in a medical faculty. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 3(2), 68-71.
Rajkoomar, M., & Raju, J. (2016). A Framework using blended learning for innovative teaching and learning. Journal of Educational Studies. 2(3), 1-9.
Ramirez-Arellano, A., Bory-Reyes, J., & Hernandez-Simon, L. (2019). Emotions, motivation, cognitive-metacognitive strategies and behavior as predictors of learning performance in blended learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 57(2), 491–512.
Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education. 144(2), 1-17.
Role, S. (2020). The identification of key online learning dispositions of college students learning in a blended learning course. European Journal of Teaching and Education. 2(3), 1-11.
Romadhon, Muh. S., Rahmah, A., & Wirani, Y. (2019). Blended learning system using social media for college student: A case of Tahsin education. Procedia Computer Science. 161, 160–167.
Saekawati, R., & Nasrudin, H. (2021). Effectiveness of guided inquiry-based on blended learning in improving critical thinking skills. Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Pendidikan. 14(1), 53-68.
Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2006). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. USA, New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Siddiqui, S., Soomro, N. N., & Martin, T. (2020). Blended learning source of satisfaction of psychological needs. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal. 15(1), 49-67.
Soeiro, D., Figueiredo, A. D., & Ferreira, J. (2012). Mediating diversity and affection in blended learning: a story with a happy ending. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 10(3), 339-348.
Serrano, D. R., Dea-Ayuela, M. A., Gonzalez-Burgos, E., SerranoGil, A., & Lalatsa, A. (2019). Technology enhanced learning in higher education: How to enhance student engagement through blended learning. European Journal of Education. 54(2), 273-286.
Siemens, G. (2006). Knowing knowledge. Vancouver, BC, Canada: Lulu Press.
Spring, K. J., Graham, C. R., & Ikahihifo, T. B. (2018). Learner engagement in blended learning. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition (pp. 1487-1498). IGI Global.USA: Pennsylvania
Spring, K. J., Graham, C. R., & Ikahihifo, T. B. (2018). Learner Engagement in Blended Learning. In M. Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition (pp. 1487-1498).  Pennsylvania, United States: IGI Global.
Sriwichai, C. (2020). Students' readiness and problems in learning English through blended learning environment. Asian Journal of Education and Training. 6(1), 23-34.
Stockwell, B., Stockwell, M., Cennamo, M., & Jiang, E. (2015). Blended learning improves science education. Cell. 162(5), 933-936.
Sukma, Y., & Priatna, N. (2021, March). The effectiveness of blended learning on students’ critical thinking skills in mathematics education: A literature review. Journal of Physics Conference Series. 1806(1), 1-6.
Syakur, A., Fanani, Z., & Ahmadi, R. (2020). The effectiveness of reading English learning process based on blended learning through "Absyak" website media in higher education. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal. 3(2), 763-772.
Tawafak, R., Alfarsi, G., Jabbar, J., Iqbal Malik, S., Mathew, R., AlSidiri, A.,.., & Romli, A. (2021). Impact of technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic for improving behavioral intention to use e-learning. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM). 15(1), 184-198.
Taylor, J. A., & Newton, D. (2013). Beyond blended learning: A case study of institutional change at an Australian regional university. Internet High. Educ. 18(1), 54-60.
Tempelaar, D. (2020). Supporting the less-adaptive student: The role of learning analytics, formative assessment and blended learning. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 45(4), 579-593.
Tong J., Han J., Liu, J., Yang, F., & Chen, S. (2012). The analysis of influencing factors of college students' learning effect in face-to-face, online and blended learning. In J. Lei, F. L. Wang, M. Li, & Y. Luo. (Eds.), Network Computing and Information Security: NCIS 2012. Communications in Computer and Information Science (Vol. 345.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Tshabalala, M., Ndeya-Ndereya, C., & Merwe, T. (2014). Implementing blended learning at a developing university: Obstacles in the way. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 12(1), 101-110.
Uziak, J., Oladiran, M. T., Lorencowicz, E., & Becker, K. (2018). Students’ and instructor’s perspective on the use of blackboard platform for delivering an engineering course. Electronic Journal of e-Learning16(1), 1-15.
Vanslambrouck, S., Zhu, C., Pynoo, B., Lombaerts, K., Tondeur, J., & Scherer, R. (2019). A latent profile analysis of adult students' online self-regulation in blended learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior. 99(10), 126-136.
Vasileva Stojanovska, T., Malinovski, T., Connell, M., Jovevski, D., & Trajkovik, V. (2015). Impact of satisfaction, personality and learning style on educational outcomes in a blended learning environment. Learning and Individual Differences. 38(2), 127-135.
Vasquez Astudillo, M. (2020). The blended learning pedagogical model in higher education. In A. V. Martín-García (Ed.), Blended Learning: Convergence between Technology and Pedagogy. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
Vavasseur, A., Muscari, F., Meyrignac, O., Nodot, M., Dedouit, F., Revel-Mouroz, P., ... & Mokrane, F. Z. (2020). Blended learning of radiology improves medical students’ performance, satisfaction, and engagement. Insights into Imaging. 11(1), 1-12.
Wilcha R. J. (2020). Effectiveness of virtual medical teaching during the COVID-19 crisis: Systematic review. JMIR Medical Education. 6(2), e20963.
Wong, R. (2019). Basis psychological needs of students in blended learning. Interactive Learning Environments. DOI: 10.1080/10494820.2019.1703010.
Yalcinkaya, D. (2015). Why is blended learning for vocationally oriented language teaching? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 174(10), 1061-1068.
Zhang Y., Chen T., & Wang C. (2020). Factors influencing students' willingness to choose blended learning in higher education. In S. Cheung, R. Li, K. Phusavat, N. Paoprasert, L. Kwok. (Eds.), Blended learning. Education in a smart learning environment. ICBL 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 12218, pp. 289-302). Cham: Springer.
Zimmer, L. (2006). Qualitative meta-synthesis: a question of dialoguing with texts. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 53(3), 311–318.