The Effectiveness of a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Promotion Program with a Positive Approach to Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder on Parent-Child Interaction, Parental Stress, and Self-Efficacy

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student in Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Science and Research Branch.Islamic Azad University, ,Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) support program with a positive approach to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on parent-child interaction, parental stress, and self-efficacy. The current study is a quasi-experiment with a pre-test-post-test design and a follow-up with a control group, which is practical in terms of the purpose of the study. The study population included mothers of children aged 6-10 years with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Kashan city in 2020, of which 30 subjects were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 15 subjects for test and control. The Awareness, Attitude and Practice (KAP) program, developed with a positive approach to ADHD and with a systematic review of research related to the psychological skills of these people, was taught to the mothers of the experimental group individually (3 sessions) and in groups (7 sessions); but the control group was not given training. The instruments used were the parental form of the Behavioral Rating Scale (CBRS) and the diagnostic interview based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5, the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (P-CRS), Children's Self-Efficacy Questionnaire SEQ-C), (Parenting Stress Scale PSS) and to analyze the data, the method of repeated measures analysis of variance was used, using SPSS 26. The results of the research show that the implementation of the program has a significant impact on the reduction of mothers’ parenting stress and the improvement of parent-child interaction and child self-efficacy.


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