Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of Work Hope Scale

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


The present study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the Work Hope scale. The research method was descriptive and correlational. The research sample comprised the enrolled students of Isfahan University in the year 2021. Composed of 292 pupils (188 female and 104 male), the sample was compiled using a proportional stratified sampling method. For data collection, the Work Hope Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Questionnaire were used. AMOS-25 software was utilized to assess convergent validity and one-group and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses in order to ascertain the validity. The estimation of internal consistency was performed using SPSS-19 as a reliability indicator. The results of a one-group confirmatory factor analysis validated the measurement model in which objectives, agency, and pathway were considered as first-order factors and work optimism as a second-order factor. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis examining the relationship between gender and measurement weights, structural covariance, and measurement residuals revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. A statistically significant correlation (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) was observed between overall self-efficacy and work aspiration. Furthermore, the estimated Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the objectives, agency, and pathway subscales were 0.90, 0.71, and 0.74, respectively, for the entire scale. The results of the measurement invariance tests indicated that the conceptual paradigm for comprehending the work hope constructs is identical among males and females, suggesting that this scale may be suitable for use with both genders.


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