Examining the Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ardakan University. yazd. Iran

2 Department of psychology . facullity of humanities and social sciences. Ardakan university, Yazd, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ardakan University, Yazd, Iran

4 Department, of Counseling, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran


The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents. In terms of methodology, this study was a correlational analysis for the purpose of test validation. The statistical population included all 9-to-16-year-old male & female students in Yazd during the academic year of 2017-2018, the sample consisted of 912 students selected through the random sampling process. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used to examine the Persian version of the test. The findings showed that the questionnaire included 3 subscales (community empathy, cognitive empathy, and effective empathy). The indices of the confirmatory factor analysis seemed to be a fit model, and the instrument explains the 48.81 percentage of the variance in empathy in children and adolescents. Also, the value of Cronbach's alpha was 0.72. The results of this study confirms the overall validity and reliability of the Persian version of the questionnaire. Therefore, this tool may be used for clinical and research purposes.


آقابابایی، س. (۱۳۹۶). تأثیر آموزش مبتنی بر تئوری ذهن بر تئوری ذهن و کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان پیش‌دبستانی. ششمین کنگره انجمن روان‌شناسی ایران. تهران، ایران.
زرشقایی، م.، نوری، ا.، و عریضی سامانی، س. ح. ر. (۱۳۸۹). کفایت شاخص­های روان‌سنجی نسخه فارسی مقیاس همدلی هیجانی متعادل. نشریه روشها و مدلهای روانشناختی. ۱(۱)، ۵۰-۳۹.
سلیمانی، ا.، و حبیبی، ع. (۱۳۹۳). ارتباط تنظیم هیجان و تاب‌آوری با بهزیستی روان­شناختی در دانش­آموزان. روانشناسی مدرسه. 3(4)، ۷۲-۵۱.
طاهری، آ.، سهیلی، ف.، و پورشهریاری، م. س. (۱۳۹۶). مقایسه هوش اجتماعی و همدلی با بیمار در دانشجویان پزشکی ایران و انگلستان: یک مطالعه میان‌فرهنگی. مجله روانشناسی و روانپزشکی شناخت. ۴(۱)، ۵۰-۳۸.
فاطمی، م. (۱۳۸۸). هوش هیجانی (چاپ سوم). تهران: سرگل.
قاسم‌پور، ع.، ایل‌بیگی، ر.، و حسن‌زاده، ش. (۱۳۹۱). خصوصیات روان‌سنجی پرسشنامه تنظیم هیجانی گراس و جان در یک نمونه ایرانی. ششمین همایش بهداشت روانی دانشجویان. دانشگاه گیلان، ایران.
کلاین، پ. (1392). راهنمای آسان برای تحلیل عوامل. ترجمه سیدجلال صدرالساداتی و اصغر مینایی. تهران: سمت.
محمود علیلو، م.، خانجانی، ز.، و بیات، ا. (۱۳۹۵). مقایسه راهبردهای مقابله­ای و تنظیم هیجان دانش‌آموزان دارای نشانه­های اختلال­های هیجانی مرتبط با اضطراب با گروه بهنجار. فصلنامه سلامت روان کودک.  ۳(۱)، ۵۱-۴۱.
محمودی، م.، برجعلی، ا.، علیزاده، ح.، غباری‌بناب، ب.، اختیاری، ح.، و اکبری‌زردخانه، س. (۱۳۹۵). تنظیم هیجان در کودکان با اختلال یادگیری و کودکان عادی. نشریه پژوهش در یادگیری آموزشگاهی و مجازی. ۴(۱۳)، ۸۴-۶۹.
هاشمی، ف.، امین­یزدی، س. ا.، و کارشکی، ح. (۱۳۹۵). نقش تئوری ذهن و همدلی در پیش‌بینی مشکلات رفتاری- هیجانی دانش­آموزان خانواده‌های طلاق و عادی. پژوهشهای روان­شناسی بالینی و مشاوره.6(1)، ۴۳-۲۴‎.
Atkins, D. (2014). The Role of Culture in Empathy: The Consequences and Explanations of Cultural Differences in Empathy at the Affective and Cognitive Levels. Doctoral dissertation, University of Kent.
Baron-Cohen, S., Richler, J., Bisarya, D., Gurunathan, N., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The Systemising Quotient (SQ): An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism and normal sex differences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, and Special issue on “Autism: Mind and Brain”. 358(1430), 361-374.
Batson, C. D, Fultz, J., & Schoenrade, P. A. (1987). Distress and empathy: Two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences. Journal of Personality. 55(1), 19-39.
Bryant, B. K. (1982). An index of empathy for children and adolescents. Child Dev. 53(2), 413-425.
Comrey A. L. (1988). Factor-analytic methods of scale development in personality and clinical psychology. Am Psychol Assoc. 56, 754-761.
Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog Sel. Doc. Psychol. 10(85), 1-19.
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1998). Prosocial development. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (p. 701–778). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2003). The nature of human altruism. Nature. 425(6960), 785-791.
Garandeau, C. F., & Cillessen, A. H. (2006). From indirect aggression to invisible aggression: A conceptual view on bullying and peer group manipulation. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 11(6), 612-625.
Goldstein, T. R., & Winner, E. (2012). Enhancing empathy and theory of mind. Journal of Cognition and Development. 13(1), 19-37.
Gross, J. J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 10(6), 214-219.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(2), 348-362.
Gullone, E., & Taffe, J. (2012). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ–CA): A psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment. 24(2), 409-417.
Healey, M. L., & Grossman, M. (2018). Cognitive and affective perspective-taking: evidence for shared and dissociable anatomical substrates. Frontiers in Neurology. 9, 491.
Hojat, M., Mangione, S., Nasca, T. J., Cohen, M. J., Gonnella, J. S., Erdmann, J. B., & Magee, M. (2001). The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: development and preliminary psychometric data. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 61(2), 349-365.
Jolliffe, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2006). Examining the relationship between low empathy and bullying. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression. 32(6), 540-550.
Kokkinos, C. M., & Kapitsa, E. (2012). The relationship between bullying, victimization, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and empathy among preadolescents. Social Psychology of Education. 15(1), 41-58.
Leiberg, S., & Anders, S. (2006). The multiple facets of empathy: a survey of theory and evidence. Progress in Brain Research. 156, 419-440.
Marshall, L. E., & Marshall, W. L. (2011). Empathy and antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology. 22(5), 742-759.
Mehabrian, A., & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality. 40(4), 525-543.
Netten, A. P., Rieffe, C., Theunissen, S. C., Soede, W., Dirks, E., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2015). Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre) adolescents compared to normal hearing controls. PloS one. 10(4), e0124102.
Overgaauw, S., Rieffe, C., Broekhof, E., Crone, E. A., & Güroğlu, B. (2017). Assessing empathy across childhood and adolescence: Validation of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA). Frontiers in Psychology. 8, 870.
Pereira, A. M., Campos, B. M., Coan, A. C., Pegoraro, L. F., Rezende, T. J., Obeso, I., & Cendes, F. (2018). Differences in cortical structure and functional MRI connectivity in high functioning autism. Frontiers in Neurology. 9, 539.
Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Personality and Individual Differences. 36(2), 277-293.
Pfeifer, J. H., & Dapretto, M. (2011). "Mirror, mirror, in my mind": Empathy, interpersonal competence, and the mirror neuron system. In J. Decety & W. Ickes (Eds.), Social neuroscience. The social neuroscience of empathy (p. 183–197). MIT Press.
Pouw, L. B., Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., Huskens, B., & Stockmann, L. (2013). Reactive/proactive aggression and affective/cognitive empathy in children with ASD. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 34(4), 1256-1266.
Preston, S. D., & De Waal, F. B. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 25(1), 1-20.
Rieffe, C., Ketelaar, L., & Wiefferink, C. H. (2010). Assessing empathy in young children: Construction and validation of an Empathy Questionnaire (EmQue). Personality and Individual Differences. 49(5), 362-367.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Hershey, K. L. (1994). Temperament and social behavior in childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 40(1), 21-39.
Titchener, E. B. (1920). Notes from the psychological laboratory of Cornell University. The American Journal of Psychology. 31(2), 212-214.
Vossen, H. G. M., Piotrowski, J. T., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2015). Development and validation of the Adolescent Measure of Empathy and Sympathy (AMES). Personality and Individual Differences. 74, 66-71.
Zahn-Waxler, C., & Smith, K. D. (1992). The development of prosaically behavior. In Handbook of social development (pp. 229-256). Springer, Boston, MA.
Zinn, W. (1993). The empathic physician. Archives of Internal Medicine. 153(3), 306-312.