Analysis of Perceptions of Elementary School Teachers in Tehran to Identify Methods to Improve Students' MalCalligraphy

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D Student. Department of Educational Science, Psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Educational Science, Psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


The aim of this study is to identify the causes of  malcalligraphye and its solutions. The advances in technology do not reduce handwriting and writing. This research was conducted with the aim of application and quality and in the form of interpretative phenomenology. For this purpose, thirty elementary school teachers in Tehran in 2020 were interviewed to be saturated. The statistical population in this study is elementary school teachers in Tehran whose subjects (20 males and 10 females) were selected using criterion sampling. Then, the interviews were analyzed and coded according to Dickelman's method. The factors of misbehavior and strategies for improvement were investigated. The strategy of data validation was also conducted with the members. The research examines the factors of misbehavior and its solutions from the teachers' perspective and forms the classification of educational, psychological and physical factors with the categories related to the student, related to the families and related issues. The result of the study shows that all three factors teachers, students and family are involved in this problem, which requires the efforts and cooperation of all factors. From the research results, it is also found that psychological factors such as anxiety and stress play an important role in this problem, and solving psychological problems and persuading and coaxing students can play an important role in improving students' handwriting.


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