The relationship between Psychological Entitlement and External Religious Orientation with Students' Life Satisfaction: the Mediating Role of Emotional Health and Internal Religious Orientation

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Psychology and Exceptional Child Education, Ramsar Institute of Higher Education, Ramsar, Iran.


The Aim Of This Study Was To Determine The Relationship Between Psychological Entitlement And External Orientation Of Religion According To The Mediating Role Of Emotional Health And Internal Orientation Of Religion With Students' Life Satisfaction. The Analysing Procedure Used In This Study Is Based On The Descriptive-Correlational Method And The Statistical Analysis Was Path Analysis. The Study Population Consisted Of Male And Female Students Of Different Levels And Fields Of Study Of Rahman Ramsar Institute Of Higher Education In The 98-99 Academic Year With A Population Of Approximately 750 People, From Whom 264 Students Are Selected For Conducting This Research. The Sampling Method Was Cluster Random. Research Instruments: Scott Haubner's Multidimensional Student Satisfaction Scale (2001), The Campbell Et's Psychological Entitlement Scale (2004), The Tenet Et's Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (2007) And The Allport And Ross's The Religious Orientation Scale (1967). The Results Showed That The Role Of Psychological Entitlement In Relation To Life Satisfaction Is Positive, Direct, And Meaningless (R = 0.05), But Psychological Entitlement Through Emotional Health Mediation Showed A Positive, Indirect And Significant Relationship With Life Satisfaction. Emotional Health Has A Positive, Direct, And Significant Relationship With Life Satisfaction (R = 0.34). The External Orientation Of Religion


بدری گرگری، ر.، و فرید، ا. (1391). رابطۀ بین جهت‌گیری مذهبی درونی و رفتارهای سلامت جسمی، روانی و معنوی و نقش واسطه‌ای ارزیابی چالش‌برانگیز بودن. فصلنامۀ علمی-پژوهشی راهبرد فرهنگ. 5(20)، 82-67.
جان‌بزرگی، م. (1386). جهت‌گیری مذهبی و سلامت روان. پژوهش در پزشکی. 31(4)، 350-345.
رجبی، غ. (1392). روایی و اعتبار نسخۀ فارسی مقیاس بهزیستی ذهنی در بیماران سرطانی. فصلنامۀ علمی-پژوهشی روان‌شناسی سلامت. 1(4)، 41-30.
رشیدی، ع.، ملک‌محمدی، ف.، و شریفی، س. (1395). بررسی رابطۀ بین جهت‌گیری مذهبی با شادکامی و کیفیت زندگی. روان‌شناسی و دین. 9(1)، 154-143.
کمری سنقرآبادی، س.، و فتح‌آبادی، ج. (1391). بررسی نقش جهت‌گیری مذهبی و امید به زندگی در میزان رضایت از زندگی. پژوهش‌های نوین روان‌شناختی (روان‌شناسی دانشگاه تبریز). 7(28)، 182-169.
صادقی، س.، صادقی، ا.، خدادادی، ز.، توکلیزاده، ج.، و تولیده‌ای، ح. (1393). رابطۀ جهت‌گیری مذهبی با بهزیستی روان‌شناختی در دانشجویان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گناباد در سال تحصیلی 13۹۱-۱۳۹۰. نشریۀ اسلام و سلامت. ۱(۴)، 63-۵۷.
محمدی، ج.، غلامرضایی، س.، و عزیزی، ا. (1394). بررسی رابطۀ بین جهت‌گیری مذهبی با سلامت روان پرستاران زن شاغل در بیمارستان‌های دولتی تبریز در سال 1393. مجلۀ علمی-پژوهشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی سبزوار. 22(6)، 1086-1080.
مظاهری، م.، و مهاجر بادکوبه، م. (1390). ویژگی روان‌سنجی پرسشنامۀ مقیاس چندبعدی رضایت از زندگی دانش‌آموزان. مجلۀ مطالعات روان‌شناسی تربیتی. 8(14)، 100-81.
مؤمنی، خ.، و رفیعی، ز. (1397). رابطۀ حمایت اجتماعی و جهت‌گیری مذهبی با رضایت از زندگی در سالمندان. سالمند. 13(1)، 60-50.
Allport, G. W. (1963). Behavioral science, religion, and mental health. Journal of Religion and Health, 2(1), 187-197.
Alandete, J, G., Belmonte, C, R., & Lozano, B, S. (2019). The religious orientation scale revised among Spanish catholic people: Structural validity and internal consistency of a 21-item model. Universitas Psychologica, 18(3), 1-12.
Anastasio, P. A., & Rose, K. C. (2014). Beyond deserving more: Psychological entitlement also predicts negative attitudes toward personally relevant out-groups. Social psychological and Personality Science, 5(5), 593–600. 
Ayten, A., & Korkmaz, S. (2020). The relationships between religiosity,
prosociality, satisfaction with life and generalised anxiety: A study on Turkish muslims, mental health, religion & culture. Spiritual Psychology and Counseling, 6(1), 980-993.
Bagherinejad, F., Khayyer, M., Kazemi, S., & Samani, S. (2020). Investigating the role of religious orientation in mental health: A review of educational studies. Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology Journal, 2(4), 301-308.
Campbell, W. K., Bonacci, A. M., Shelton, J., Exline, J. J., & Bushman, B. J. (2004). Psychological entitlement: Interpersonal consequences and validation of a self-report
measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83(1), 29-45.
Cagle, J. B. (2017). A study of the life satisfaction of students and its effect on their academic achievement. Ph.D. Dissertation. Faculty of the Education, Carson University, Newman.
Ciarrocchi, J. W., & Deneke, E. (2005) Hope, Optimism, Pessimism, and Spirituality as Predictors of Wellbeing Controlling for Personality. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 16(1), 161-183.
Gilman, R., & Huebner, E.S. (2006). Characteristics of adolescents who report very high life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 293-301.
Grubbs, J. B., & Exline, J. J. (2016). Trait entitlement: A cognitive-personality source of vulnerability to psychological distress. Psychological Bulletin, 142(1), 1204-1226.
Habib, D. G., Donald, C., & Hutchinson, G. (2018). Religion and life satisfaction: A correlational study of undergraduate students in Trinidad. J Relig Health. 57(1), 1567–1580.
Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 149-158.
Huebner, S. (2010). Students and their schooling: Does happiness matter? Nasp Communique, Retrieved from. Http://Www.Nasponline.Org/Publications/Cq/39/2/Happinessmatter.Aspx.
Huebner, E. S., Hills, K. J., Siddall, J., & Gilman, R. (2014). Life satisfaction and schooling. In M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. S. Huebner (Eds.), Educational psychology handbook series. Handbook of positive psychology in schools (P. 192–207). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Iles-Caven, Y., Gregory, S., Ellis, G., Golding, J., & Nowicki, S. (2020). The Relationship between locus of Control and Religious Behavior and Beliefs in a Large Population of Parents: An Observational Study. Front. Psychol, 11: 1462.
Jiang, Q., Yuen, M., & Horta, H. (2020). Factors influencing life satisfaction of international students in mainland China. Int J Adv Counselling, 42(1), 393–413.
Kate, J. T., Koster, W. D., & Waal, J. V. D. (2017). The effect of religiosity on life satisfaction in a secularized context: Assessing the relevance of believing and belonging. Rev Relig Res, 59(2), 135–155.
Lange, J., Redford, L., & Crusius, J. (2019). A status-seeking account of psychological entitlement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45(7), 1113-1128.
Lessard, J., Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (2016). Sense of entitlement. In: Levesque R. (Eds) encyclopedia of adolescence. Cham: Springer.
Lodi, E., Boerchi, D., Magnano, P., & Patrizi, P. (2019). High-school satisfaction scale (H-sat scale): Evaluation of contextual satisfaction in relation to high-school students’ life satisfaction. Behavioral Sciences, 9(12), 12-5.
Lombardo, P., Jones, W., Wang, L., shen. X., goldner, E, M. (2018). The fundamental association between mental health and life satisfaction: Results from successive waves of a Canadian national survey. Bmc Public Health, 18(1), 342-350.
Krizan, Z., & Herlache, A. D. (2017). The narcissism spectrum model: A synthetic view of narcissistic personality. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 22(1), 3-31.
Makki, N & Mohanty, M, S. (2019). Mental health and happiness: Evidence from the U.S. data. The American Economist, Sage Publications, 64(2), 197-215.
Miller, B. J. (2020). Religious reedom and local conflict: Religious Buildings and zoning issues in the New York City Region, 1992–2017, Sociology of Religion, 81(4), 462–484.
Mochon, D., Norton, M. I., & Ariely, D. (2011). Who benefits from religion? Social Indicators Research, 101(1), 1–15.
Ojha, R., & Srivastava, V. K. (2017). A study on life satisfaction and emotional well-being among university students. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(2), 112-116.
Park, N., & Huebner, E. S. (2005). A cross-cultural study of the levels and correlates of life satisfaction among adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(1), 444–456.
Piotrowska, M, A, Z., Piotrowski, J, P & Maltby, J. (2017). Agentic and communal narcissism and satisfaction with life: The mediating role of psychological entitlement and self-esteem. International Journal of Psychology, 52(5), 420-424.
Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 10(5), 583–630. 
Priesemuth, M., & Taylor, P. M. (2016). The more I want, the less I have left to give: The moderating role of psychological entitlement on the relationship between psychological contract violation, depressive mood states, and citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(7), 18-34.
Redford, L., & Ratliff, K. A. (2018). Pride and punishment: Entitled people’s self-promoting values motivate hierarchy-restoring retribution: Entitlement and justice orientation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 48(1), 303-319.
Ribberink, E., Achterberg, P., & Houtman, D. (2013). Deprivatization of disbelief? Nonreligiosity and anti-religiosity in 14 western European countries. Politics and Religion. 6(1), 101–120.
Tamborski, M., Brown, R. P., & Chowning, K. (2012). Self-serving bias or simply serving the self? Evidence for a dimensional approach to narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(1), 942-946.
Tennant‚ R.‚ Hiller‚ L.‚ Fishwick‚ R.‚ Platt‚ S.‚ Joseph‚ S.‚ Stewart-Brown‚ Sl. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). In: Simmons C. A.‚ Lehmann P. (eds.). Tools for strengths-based assessment and evaluation‚ New York‚ NY: Springer‚ pp. 91-93.
Villani, D., Sorgente, A., Iannello, P., & Antonietti, A. (2019). The role of spirituality and religiosity in subjective well-being of individuals with different religious status. Original Research, 10(1525), 1-11.
Von Rueden, C., Gurven, M., & Kaplan, H. (2011). Why do men seek status? Fitness payoffs to dominance and prestige. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences278(1), 2223-2232.
Wang, Ch., Liu, J., Pu, R., Li, Z., Guo, W., Feng, Zh., ... & Tang, Sh. (2020). Determinants of subjective health, happiness, and life satisfaction among young adults (18-24 Years) in Guyana. Biomed Research International, 1(2), 1-14.
Yeniaras, V., & Akarsu, T. N. (2017). Religiosity and life satisfaction: A multi-dimensional approach. J Happiness Stud, 18(6), 1815–1840.
You, S., & Lim, S. A. (2019). Religious orientation and subjective well-being: The mediating role of meaning in life. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 47(1), 34-47.