مقایسه تکانشوری در بیماران مبتلا به افسردگی، اختلال های اضطرابی و افراد عادی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد روانشناسی بالینی. دانشکده روانشناسی و الوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی بالینی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

3 دانشجوی دکترای روانشناسی عمومی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران

4 کارشنات ارشد روانشناسی بالینی کودک و نوجوان، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

5 دکترای تخصصی روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی. واحد یزد

چکیده

تکانشوری، گرایش به انجام رفتار ناگهانی و فاقد دوراندیشی، از مولفه­های تعیین­کننده تعدادی از اختلال­های ­روان­­پزشکی است. ابعاد تکانشوری شامل بی برنامگی، تکانشوری حرکتی و تکانشوری شناختی هر یک به نحوی تعیین­کننده جنبه­هایی از افسردگی و اختلال­های اضطرابی هستند. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، مقایسه ویژگی­های تکانشوری بیماران مبتلا به افسردگی و اختلال­های اضطرابی و افراد عادی بود. این مقایسه، تفاوت سطوح تکانشوری سه گروه شرکت کننده در این پژوهش را نشان داد. تعداد 224 نفر (87 افسرده، 64 مضطرب، 73 عادی) از مبتلایان و جمعیت عمومی به صورت داوطلب در این پژوهش شرکت کردند. علاوه بر تشخیص روان­پزشکی نوع اختلال، از شرکت کنندگان خواسته شد تا مقیاس تکانشوری بارات (BIS؛ بارات، 1994) را تکمیل کنند. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که افراد افسرده به طور معنادار بیش از افراد مضطرب و عادی تکانشوری حرکتی و بی برنامگی دارند و افراد مضطرب به طور معنادار بیش از افراد افسرده تکانشوری شناختی و بیش از افراد عادی تکانشوری شناختی و بی برنامگی دارند. سطوح تکانشوری افراد عادی در هر سه بعد کمتر از افراد افسرده و مضطرب بود.  مقایسه ابعاد تکانشوری بیماران و افراد عادی، احتمال تاثیرگذاری تکانشوری بر شکل­گیری و یا تداوم افسردگی و اختلال­های اضطرابی را تایید می­کند. تفاوت سطوح و ابعاد تکانشوری بیماران افسرده و مضطرب نیز می­تواند تفاوت در نوع اختلال روانشناختی را در این دو گروه توجیه کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative study of impulsiveness in patients with major depression, anxiety disorders, and normal individuals

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Besharat 1
  • Mohammad Reza Nikfarjam 2
  • Kourosh Mohammadi Hasel 3
  • Abbas Zabihzadeh 4
  • Mohamad Hosein Fallah 5
1 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Impulsiveness, the individual's tendency to respond quickly to a given stimulus without reflectivity and evaluation of the consequences, is considered as a determinant component of several psychiatric disorders. Dimensions of impulsiveness including lack of discipline, motor impulsiveness, and cognitive impulsiveness could influence different aspects of depression and anxiety disorders. The main aim of this study was to compare impulsiveness in patients with major depression and anxiety disorders with and normal individuals. This study demonstrates the differences of impulsivity among the three attending groups in this study. A total of 224 individuals (87 depressed, 64 anxious, 73 normal) participated in this study voluntarily. Following a psychiatric diagnosis of the psychological disorders, both the patient and normal groups were asked to complete the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale (BIS; Barratt, 1994). The results revealed that depressed patients reported significantly higher levels of motor impulsiveness and lack of descipline than did anxious patients and normal individuals. Anxious patients reported higher levels of cognitive impulsiveness than did depressed patients as well as higher levels of cognitive impulsiveness and lack of discipline than did normal individuals. Normal individuals reported lower levels of impulsiveness than did the two groups of depressed and anxious patients. Comparison of dimensions of impulsiveness in patients and normal individuals provides evidence of the possible impact of pathological impulsivity on the development and/or continuity of depression and anxiety disorders. The difference between levels and dimensions of impulsiveness of the two groups of depressed and anxious patients also could explain their differences in terms of the kind of psychological disorders.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • impulsiveness
  • Depression
  • anxiety
  • psychopathology

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