تحلیل چندسطحی عوامل سطح دانش آموز، کلاس درس و مدرسه بر تفکر انتقادی دانش آموزان و ارائه راهکارهای عملی برای توسعه تفکر انتقادی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 داشیار ، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران

3 دکتری روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، تحلیل چندسطحی عوامل سطح دانش­ آموز، کلاس درس و مدرسه بر تفکر انتقادی دانش­ آموزان بوده است. 974 نفر از دانش ­آموزان دوره متوسطه شهر تهران در پژوهش شرکت کردند. متغیرهایی از سه سطح دانش ­آموز (نیازهای بنیادین روانشناختی و نیاز به شناخت)، کلاس (حمایت از خودمختاری، ساختار ادارک شده) و مدرسه (فرهنگ مدرسه) انتخاب شدند. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ­ها از مدل خطی سلسله مراتبی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در سطح دانش­ آموز، متغیرهای نیاز به خودمختاری، نیاز به شایستگی، نیاز به ارتباط و نیاز به شناخت، و در سطح کلاس، ساختار ادراک شده و حمایت از خودمختاری ادراک شده رابطه­ معناداری با مولفه­ های تحلیل­ گری، کنجکاوی و حقیقت ­جویی گرایش به تفکر انتقادی دارند. در سطح مدرسه روابط معلم و دانش­ آموزان رابطه­ معناداری با تحلیل­ گری و کنجکاوی و روابط دانش­ آموزان با یکدیگر و انتظارات هنجاری رابطه­ معناداری با حقیقت ­جویی دارد. در مجموع، یافته­ ها نقش عوامل سطح دانش ­آموز (نیازهای بنیادین روانشناختی و نیاز به شناخت)، سطح کلاس (حمایت از خودمختاری، ساختار ادارک شده) و سطح مدرسه (فرهنگ مدرسه) در گرایش به تفکر انتقادی دانش ­آموزان را مورد تأکید قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Multilevel analysis on students’ critical thinking at students, classroom and school levels and provide practical implementation to developing critical thinkingng

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elaheh Hejazi 1
  • Mahsa Salehnajafi 2
  • Hemin Khezri azar 3
1 Assistant professor
2 University of Tehran
3 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to analyze multilevel of student, classroom, and school factors on students' critical thinking. 974 students of high school of Tehran participated in research. The variables selected from three levels of students (basic psychological needs and the need for cognition) of the class (support for autonomy, perceived structure) and school (school culture). A hierarchical linear model was used to analyses data. The results showed that there was a significant relationship at the student level, the variables required for autonomy, need for competence, need for communication and the need for cognition and At the level of the class, perceived structure and support for perceived autonomy had a significant relationship with the components of analysis, curiosity and truth-seeking, tend to be critical thinking. At the school level, teacher-student relationships had a significant relationship with the analytic, curiosity and student relationships with each other and normative expectations. In sum, the findings emphasized the role of student-level factors (basic psychological needs and the need for cognition), the level of class (support for autonomy, perceived structure) and the level of school (school culture) in influencing critical thinking of students.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The tendency to critical thinking
  • basic psychological needs
  • the need for cognition
  • school culture
  • class structure
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