عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The aim of the present study is to construct an instrument for research in the field of middle age development that It can help in launching various researches in this field. After reviewing various theories about the middle age development, 12 areas of developmental challenges were identified and based on them, 66 questions (on average 5.5 questions per each domain) were designed. At first, the questions were reviewed by four experts in the field of developmental psychology in terms of content validity and after some changes in the wording of some questions, were administrated on 398 subjects (204 women and 194 men) from 22 districts of Tehran residents between the ages of 40 to 65 years. The factor analysis showed that the scale consisted of 6 factors which respectively include; job satisfaction, leisure without pleasure, concerns, marital dissatisfaction, interaction with the next generation and social responsibility. Statistics of the internal consistency of the questionnaire showed that most of the subscales have desirable reliability. As a result, the questionnaire is appropriate for applying in the researches on middle age developmental challenges.
Alavi, K., Asghari Moghadam, M, A., Rahiminezhad, A., Farahani, H., Shams, G. (2017). Psychometric properties of personal need for structure scale. Applied Psychological research quarterly. 7(4), 133-150 (in Persian
Bertrand. R. M., & Luchman. M. E. (2003). Personality development in adulthood and old age. In Learner. R. M., asterbrookes. M. A. &Mistry. J (Ed). Handbook of psychology, Developmental psychology (p. 468). John Wily & sons. New Jersey
Brim. O. G. (1992). Ambition: How we manage success and failure throw ought our lives. New York: Basic Books.
Carstensen. L. L., & Turk-Charles. S. (1994). The salience of emotion across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging, 9, 259-264.
Comrey, L.A. & Lee, H.B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Eysenk.M. W. (2000). Psychology: A student handbook. Taylor &Francies.P (479.
Freund.A.M., Ritter.J.O.(2009). Midlife crises: A debate, Gerontology Behavioral Science Section, Vol 55: 582-591.
Ghamarani, A., Salehi, H., Golkar, T., Arab Baferani, H, R. (2017). Investigate the psychometric features of work related flow inventory. Applied Psychological research quarterly, 7 (2), 48-33 (in Persian.
Hermans.H.J.M., & Oles.P.K. (1999). Midlife crisis in men: Affective organization of personal meanings.Human Relations, Vol 52(11).
Huyck.M.H. (1999). Gender roles and gender identity in midlife. In S.L.Wills&J.D.Reid (Ed). Life in the midlife: Psychological and social issues in middle age (pp.209-232). Sa,nDiego,CA: Academic Press.
Jung.C.G.(1933). Modern man in search of a soul.New York: Harcourt, Barce& World.
Khodayarifard, M., Gobaribonab, B., Zardkhaneh, A, S., Zamanpour, A., Derakhshan, M., Musavi, S, A. (2015). Iranian Positive Thinking Scale (IPTS): Development and Standardization. Applied Psychological research quarterly. 5 (4), 130-103 (in Persian.
Levinson.D. J. (1986). A Conception of Adult Development. American Psychologist.Vol. 41, No. 1, 3-13
Levinson.D. J.,Darow. C. N., Klein. E. B., Levinson. M. H., & McKee. B. (1978). The seasons of man’s life.New York: KNOPF.
Louw. A. D. (1998). Human development, Kagiso Tertiary, P (508-509).
Luchman.M.E, (2001).Handbook of midlife development. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Luchman.M.E. (2004). Development in midlife.Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2004. 55:305–31.
McCrea. R., & Costa. P. T. (2005). Personality in adulthood: A five factor theory perspective. The Guilford Press, New York.
Menon.U. (2001). Midlife adulthood in cultural perspective: The imagined and the experienced in three cultures, In. Luchman. M.E, (Ed). Handbook of midlife development. Wiley e book.
Merriam.S., & Mullins.L. (1981). Havighurst’s adult development tasks: a study of their importance relative to income, age and sex.Adult Education, Vol 31 (3). PP 123-141.
Perun. P. J., & Bielby. D. D. V. (1979). Midlife a discussion of competing models. Research on Aging. Vol 1 (3), 275-300.##Roberts. P., & Newton. P. M. (1987). Levinson studies of woman's adult development. Psychology and aging. P (154-163).
Shek. D. T. L. (1996). Midlife in Chinese man and woman, Journal of Psychology, 130, 109-119.
Studinger.U.M., & Bluck. S. (2001). A view on midlife development from lifespan theory, In Luchman.M.E, (Ed).Handbook of midlife development.( pp 3-39), New York, NY: Wiley e book.
Tamir. L. M. (1982). Men at Middle Age: Developmental Transitions, ANNALS, AAPSS.464 (pp 47-56).
Turner. J. S. (2002). Families in America: Reference handbook. ABC-CLIO California. P (145(
Whitborn.S.K., & Whitborn.S.B.(2011). Adult development and aging: Biological perspective, 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, P 185.