پیش‌بینی بیش‌تمرینی ادراک‌شده برحسب اضطراب رقابتی و تمایل به عضلانی شدن در ورزشکاران مرد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

2 استاد گروه روانشناسی دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، پیش‌بینی بیش‌تمرینی ادراک‌شده بر حسب اضطراب رقابتی و تمایل به عضلانی شدن در ورزشکاران مرد بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر شامل تمامی ورزشکاران شهر تهران بود که برحسب نمونه‌گیری در دسترس 250 ورزشکاران مرد در رشته‌های مختلف ورزشی (انفرادی و تیمی) برگزیده شدند. ابزار این پژوهش شامل پرسشنامه‌های بیش‌تمرینی ادراک‌شده (OTQ)، اضطراب رقابتی (CAQ) و تمایل به عضلانی‌شدن (DMQ) بود. نتایج یافته‌های همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام نشان داد که بیش‌تمرینی ادراک‌شده به ترتیب با دو متغیر اضطراب شناختی و اضطراب بدنی همبستگی مثبت و معنادار و با اعتمادبه‌نفس و تمایل به عضلانی‌شدن همبستگی منفی و معنادار دارد. به‌صورت کلی، چهار متغیرِ اضطراب بدنی، تمایل به عضلانی‌شدن، اعتمادبه‌نفس و اضطراب شناختی بیش از 41 درصد از واریانس بیش‌تمرینی را پیش‌بینی می‌نماید؛ بنابراین شناخت و پایش اضطراب رقابتی و تمایل به عضلانی‌شدن در ورزشکاران می‌تواند در پیش‌بینی بیش‌تمرینی ادراک‌شده نقش مؤثری داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prediction of Perceived Overtraining From Competitive Anxiety and Drive for Muscularity Among Male Athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Meysam Shahhosseni 1
  • Mohammad Ali Besharat 2
  • Amirhossein Afshari 1
1 MSc student, university of semnan, Semnan, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of the present study was to predict of perceived overtraining from competitive anxiety and drive for muscularity among male athletes. The statistical population of the present study 250 male athletes who were selected using accessible sampling from different sport fields (individual and group), and completed perceived overtraining, competitive anxiety and drive for muscularity questionnaires. Results of Pearson correlation and stepwise regression showed that perceived overtraining has a positive and significant correlation with cognitive and physical anxiety, and negative and significant correlation with self-confidence and drive for muscularity, respectively. In general, four variables such as physical anxiety, drive for muscularity, self-confidence, and cognitive anxiety predicted over 41% of the variance overtraining. Thus, our findings suggest that recognizing and monitoring of competitive anxiety and drive for muscularity in athletes play a key role in identifying perceived overtraining.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Perceived Overtraining
  • Competitive Anxiety
  • Drive for Muscularity
فیروزی، م.، و رستمی، ر. (1393). عوامل روان‌شناختی خطرساز در ایجاد مشکلات سلامت روان ورزشکاران حرفه‌ای. فصلنامه پژوهشهای کاربردی روانشناختی. 5(2)، 15-1.

زادخوش، س. م.، غرایاق­زندی، ح.، و حمایت­طلب، ر. (1395) تأثیر نوروفیدبک بر کاهش اضطراب ورزشی و افزایش عملکرد ورزشکاران. فصلنامه پژوهشهای کاربردی روانشناختی. 7(4)، 21-37.

حاجلو، ن. (1395). ویژگی­های روان‌سنجی فرم کوتاه مقیاس اضطراب حالت رقابتی. فصلنامه پژوهشهای کاربردی روانشناختی. 7(1)، 25-40.

بشارت، م. ع. (a1388). ساخت و هنجاریابی پرسشنامه بیش‌تمرینی ادراک‌شده. گزارش پژوهشی،دانشگاهتهران.

بشارت، م. ع. (b1388). ساخت و هنجاریابی پرسشنامه چندبُعدی اضطراب رقابتی. گزارش پژوهشی،دانشگاهتهران.

مولودی، ر.، نونهال، س.، و دادخواه، ا. (1391) کفایت روان‌سنجی نسخه فارسی مقیاس تمایل به عضلانی‌بودن در ورزشکاران مرد رشته پرورش‌اندام شهرستان گرگان. مجله روشها و مدلهای روانشناختی. 3(10)، 26-15.

شاه‌حسینی، م.، غرایاق‌زندی، ح.، و حسنی‌سنگانی، م. (1395). مقایسه سلامت عمومی و نیمرخ حالات خلقی در ورزشکاران پرورش اندام با و بدون مصرف استروئیدهای آنابولیک. مجله رشد و یادگیری حرکتی دانشگاه تهران. 8(3)، 517-530.

Alves, R. N., Costa, L. O. P., & Samulski, D. M. (2006). Monitoring and prevention of overtraining in athletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte. 12(5), 6-12.

Armstrong, L. E., & Vanheest, J. L. (2002). The unknown mechanism of the overtraining   syndrome. Sports Medicine. 32(3), 185-209.

Bandyopadhyay A, Bhattacharjee I, Sousana P. (2012). Physiological perspective of endurance overtraining-a comprehensive update. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 5(1), 9-20.

Burton, D. (1998). Measuring competitive state anxiety. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp. 129-148). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.

Cafri, G., Thompson, J. K., Ricciardelli, L., McCabe, M., Smolak, L., & Yesalis, C. (2005). Pursuit of the muscular ideal: Physical and psychological consequences and putative risk factors.Clinical Psychology Review. 25(4), 215-239.

Cafri, G., Thompson, J. K., Ricciardelli, L., McCabe, M., Smolak, L., & Yesalis, C. (2005). Pursuit of the muscular ideal: Physical and psychological consequences and putative risk factors. Clinical Psychology Review. 25(2), 215-39.

Carter, J. G., Potter, A.W., Brooks, K. A. (2014). Overtraining syndrome: causes, consequences, and methods for prevention. J. Sport Hum. Perform. 2(2), 1-4.

DiFiori, J. P., Benjamin, H.J., Brenner, J.S., Gregory, A., Jayanthi, N., Landry. G. L., & Luke, A. (2014). Overuse injuries and burnout in youth sports: a position statement from the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. Br J Sports Med. 48(4), 287-8.

 Froehlich J. (1995). Overtraining syndrome. In: Heil J, editor. Psychology of sport injury. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics. 59-70.

Galli, N., Petrie, T., Reel, J. J., Greenleaf, C., & Carter, J. E. (2015). Psychosocial predictors of drive for muscularity in male collegiate athletes. Body Image. 14(2), 62-66.

Goodger, K., Gorely, T., Lavallee, D., & Harwood, C. (2007). Burnout in sport: A systematic review. The Sport Psychologist. 21(2), 127-151.

Gould, D., Petlichkoff, L., & Weinberg, R. S. (1984). Antecedents of, temporal changes in and relationships between CSAI-2 subcomponents. Journal of Sport Psychology. 6(3), 289-304.

Grossbard, J. R., Cumming, S. P., Standage, M., Smith, R. E., & Smoll, F. L. (2007). Social desirability and relations between goal orientations and competitive trait anxiety in young athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 8(4), 491-505.

Halson, S. L., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2004). Does overtraining exist? Sports Medicine. 34(14), 967-81.

Hanton, S., & Connaughton, D. (2002). Perceived control of anxiety and its relationship with self-confidence performance: A qualitative explanation. Research Quarterlyfor Exercise & Sport. 73(20), 87-97.

Hanton, S., Neil, R., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2008). Recent developments in competitive anxiety direction and competition stress research. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1(1), 45-57.

Hashim, H. A., Zulkifli, E. Z., Yusof, H. A. (2010). Factorial validation of Malaysian adapted Brunel Mood Scale in an adolescent sample. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 1(4), 185-198.

Hausenblas, H. A., Schreiber, K., & Smoliga, J. M. (2017). Addiction to exercise. BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online). 26(4), 357-386.

Jerome, G. J., & Williams, J. M. (2000). Intensity and interpretation of competitive state anxiety: Relationship to performance and repressive coping. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 12(2), 236-50.

Kanayama, G., & Pope, H. G. (2017). History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 464(5), 4-13.

Kellmann, M. (2002). Enhancing recovery: Preventing underperformance in athletes. Human Kinetics.

Kellmann, M. (2002).Preventing overtraining in athletes in high‐intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 20(2), 95-102.

Kellmann, M. (2010). Preventing overtraining in athletes in high‐intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 20(2), 95-102.

Kolt, G. S., & Kirkby, R. J. (1994). Injury, Anxiety, and Mood in Competitive Gymnasts 1. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 78(3), 955-962.

Kreher, J. B. (2016). Diagnosis and prevention of overtraining syndrome: an opinion on education strategies. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine. 7(2), 115-124

Lehmann, M. A. N. F. R. E. D., Foster, C. A. R. L., Dickhuth, H. H., & Gastmann, U. (1998). Autonomic imbalance hypothesis and overtraining syndrome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 30(7), 1140-1145.

Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 157-198.

Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Human kinetics.

Martinent, G., & Ferrand, C. (2007). A cluster analysis of precompetitive anxiety: Relationship with perfectionism and trait anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences. 43(7), 1676-86.

Mayville, S. B., Williamson, D. A., White, M.A., Netemeyer, R. G., & Drab, D. L. (2002). Development of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: A self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Assessment. 9(4), 351-360.

McCreary, D. R. (2012). Muscularity and body image. In T. F. Cash (Ed.), Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (vol. 2); pp: 561-567. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

McCreary, D. R., Sasse, D. K., Saucier, D. M., & Dorsch, K. D. (2004). Measuring the drive for muscularity: factorial validity of the drive for muscularity scale in men and women. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 5(1), 49-62.

Morrison, T. G., Morrison, M. A., & McCann, L. (2006). Striving for bodily perfection? An overview of the drive for muscularity.In M. V. Kindes (Ed.), Body image: New research. PP: 1-34. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

Morrison, T. G., Morrison, M. A., Hopkins, C., & Rowan, E. T. (2004). Muscle mania:Development of a new scale examining the drive for muscularity in Canadianmen. Psychology of Men and Masculinity. 5(3), 30-39.

Nicholls, A. R., McKenna, J., Polman, R. C., & Backhouse, S. H. (2011). Overtraining during preseason: Stress and negative affective states among professional rugby union players. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 5(3), 211-222.

Nicholls, A. R., McKenna, J., Polman, R. C., & Backhouse, S. H. (2011). Overtraining during preseason: Stress and negative affective states among professional rugby union players. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 5(3), 211-222.

Parent, M. C. (2013). Clinical considerations in etiology, assessment, and treatment of men's muscularity-focused body image disturbance. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 14(1), 88-100.

Pope, H. G. Jr., Phillips, K. A., & Olivardia, R. (2000). The Adonis Complex: The secret crisis of male body obsession. New York: The Free Press.

Poulsen, A. A., Ziviani, J. M., & Cuskelly, M. (2006). General self-concept and life satisfaction for boys with differing levels of physical coordination: The role of goal orientations and leisure participation. Human Movement Science. 25(6), 839-860.

Reteguiz, J. A. (2006). Relationship between anxiety and standardized patient test performance in the medicine clerkship. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 21(5), 415-8. 

Robazza, C., & Bortoli, L. (2007). Perceived impact of anger and anxiety on sporting performance in rugby players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 8(6), 875-896.

Sabato, T. M., Walch, T. J., & Caine, D. J. (2016). The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine. 7(5), 99-107.

Sharp, N. C., & Koutedakis, Y. (1992). Sport and the overtraining syndrome: immunological aspects. British Medical Bulletin. 48(3), 518-533.

Steinacker, J. M., & Lehmann, M. (2002). Clinical findings and mechanisms of stress and recovery in athletes. In M. Kellmann (Ed.), Enhancing recovery: Preventing underperformance in athletes (pp. 103-118). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Multiple regressions. Using Multivariate Statistics. 4(2), 110-130.

Urhausen, A., & Kindermann, W. (2002). Diagnosis of overtraining. Sports Medicine. 32(2), 95-102.

Urhausen, A., Gabriel, H., & Kindermann, W. (1995). Blood hormones as markers of training stress and overtraining. Sports Medicine. 20(4), 251-76.

Uusitalo, A. L. (2001). Overtraining: making a difficult diagnosis and implementing targeted treatment. The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 29(5), 35-50.

Williams, M. (2000). Virtually criminal: Discourse, deviance and anxiety within virtual communities. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology. 14(1), 95-104.

Woodman, T., & Hardy, L. (2001). Stress and anxiety. In R. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology. New York: Wiley: 196-241