اثر افزایش شاخص تودة بدنی بر سرعت واکنش، توجه پایدار و حافظة کاری کودکان و نوجوانان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی شناختی، موسسۀ عالی علوم شناختی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه روان‌شناسی و دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی و عضو وابسته پژوهشکده علوم شناختی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه روانشناسی شناختی موسسه آموزش عالی علوم شناختی ، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار دانشکده تغذیه و رژیم شناسی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

5 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی شناختی، موسسه عالی علوم شناختی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی اثر افزایش شاخص تودة بدنی بر عملکردهای شناختی مانند سرعت واکنش، توانایی توجه پایدار و حافظة کاری دیداری- فضایی کودکان و نوجوانان انجام شده است. پژوهش به روش علی مقایسه‌ای انجام شده است و از جهت هدف، مطالعه‌ای بنیادی محسوب می‌شود. جامعة آماری پژوهش حاضر دانش‌آموزان 15-12 سال مقطع اول متوسطه شهر تهران در سال تحصیلی 99-98 هستند که 75 نفر آن‌ها (36 دختر، 39 پسر) براساس شاخص تودة بدنی در سه گروه دارای اضافه ‌وزن، چاق و دارای وزن بهنجار به روش نمونه‌گیری دردسترس برای نمونه‌های این پژوهش انتخاب شدند. برای ارزیابی عملکردهای شناختی شرکت‌کنندگان از خرده‌آزمون‌های آزمون عصب روان‌شناختی کنتب (CNTAB) و برای ارزیابی چاقی از شاخص تودة بدنی (BMI) استفاده شد. داده‌های جمع‌آوری‌شده با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS (نسخۀ 26) تحلیل شدند. نتایج حاصل از آزمون تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره نشان می‌دهد که دانش‌آموزان چاق در مقایسه با گروه دارای وزن بهنجار و اضافه وزن در آزمون‌های سرعت واکنش و حافظة کاری دیداری – فضایی عملکرد ضعیف‌تری دارند و این تفاوت در سطح 01/0< P معنادار است. با توجه به نتایج این مطالعه می‌توان گفت چاقی و افزایش تودة چربی بر افت بعضی از عملکردهای شناختی تأثیرگذار است و همین امر ممکن است در تأخیر یا کاهش پیشرفت مهارت‌های تحصیلی و اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان مؤثر باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Increasing BMI on Reaction Time, Sustained Attention and Working Memory in Children and Adolescents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asiyeh Rezaei Niyasar 1
  • Alirezae Moradi 2
  • Meysam Sadeghi 3
  • Maryam Mahmoudi 4
  • Soroush Lohrasbi 5
1 Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute for Cognitive Sciences Studies, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University and Institute for Cognitive Science Studies,Tehran,Iran
3 Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute for Cognitive Sciences Studies, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,Iran.
5 PHD Student in Cognitive Psychology, Institute for Cognitive Sciences Studies, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aims to investigate the effect of increasing body mass index (BMI) on cognitive functions such as reaction time, sustained attention, and visuospatial working memory in children and adolescents. The research method is causal-comparative, and is a basic study in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the present study consists of all high school students (12–15 years old) in Tehran in 2019, among which 75 students (36 girls and 39 boys) were selected by convenience sampling method and classified into three groups of obese, overweight and normal weight based on BMI. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance and BMI was also measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 26). The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that obese students performed worse on the tests of reaction time and visuospatial working memory than the normal and overweight groups, and their difference is significant (p 0.01). Accordingly, one can say that increasing fat and BMI levels lead to a decrease in some cognitive functions and this may delay or decrease the development of students’ academic and social skills.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive Assessment
  • CANTAB
  • Reaction Time
  • sustained attention
  • working memory
  • Obesity
  • Children
  • Adolescents
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