تأثیر تمرینات نوروفیدبک بر کاهش اضطراب ورزشی و افزایش عملکرد ورزشکاران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی . دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی . دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

با توجه به تأثیری که اضطراب می‌تواند بر عملکرد داشته باشد، رابطه اضطراب و عملکرد سال‌هاست که مورد توجه پژوهشگران قرار گرفته است. هدف اصلی این تحقیق، مطالعه اثر تمرینات نوروفیدبک آلفا/تتا بر عملکرد و اضطراب فوتبالیست‌های جوان بود. بدین منظور تعداد 30 ورزشکار رشته فوتبال به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش (مداخله تمرینات نوروفیدبک پروتکل آلفا/تتا) و کنترل قرار گرفتند. ورزشکاران گروه آزمایش، 12جلسه (6 هفته و هفته‌ای 2 جلسه) 30 دقیقه‌ای تمرین نوروفیدبک با پروتکل کاهش موج آلفا و افزایش موج تتا دریافت نمودند و در گروه کنترل هیچ مداخله‌ای انجام نگرفت. قبل و بعد از مداخله از پرسشنامه مقیاس اضطراب ورزشی و آزمون عملکرد شوت فوتبال استفاده گردید. از تحلیل واریانس چندعاملی برای مقایسه گروه‌ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد گروه نوروفیدبک بهبودی معنی‌داری را در کاهش اضطراب ورزشی و افزایش عملکرد ورزشی نشان می‌دهد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که تمرینات نوروفیدبک آلفا/تتا می­توانند روشی مناسب جهت تمرینات افزایش عملکرد و کاهش اضطراب ورزشی فوتبالیست‌ها ‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of Neurofeedback on Anxiety decrease and Athletic performance Enhancement

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohammad Zadkhosh 1
  • Hassan Gharayagh Zandi 2
  • Rasool Hemayattalab 3
1 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Considering the effects that anxiety can have on performance, the relationship between anxiety and performance has interested researchers for many years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Neurofeedback alpha/theta intervention on the anxiety reduction and performance enhancement in young soccer players. To do so, 30 soccer players attending the National Soccer League of Iran were assigned to two experimental (intervention based on alpha/theta Neurofeedback training) and control groups. Athletes in the experimental group received 12 30-minute sessions of Neurofeedback training and the control group did not receive any intervention. Before and after the interventions, Sport Anxiety Scale Questionnaire and Kick Performance Test were used to collect data. MANOVA was used to compare the two groups. The results showed that the improvement of athletic performance scores and reduction of anxiety scale were significant in the experimental group. According to these findings, we concluded that the alpha/theta Neurofeedback training is appropriate to increase athletic performance and decrease the level of sport anxiety.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • neurofeedback
  • anxiety
  • Athletic Performance
  • athletes

Albert, A., Andrasik, F., Moore, J., & Dunn, B. (1998). Thêta/bêta training for attention, concentration and memory improvement in the geriatric population. Paper presented at the Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

Allahkarami, K. (2010). The effects of Neurofeedback on performance scale of elite Shooters. Master Thesis. Baghiyatollah Medical Science University

Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U., Breteler, M., & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and neuroscience, 40(3), 180-189

Bahmani, B., Torabian, S., Rezaeinejad, S., Manzari Tavakoli, V., & Moeinifard, M. (2016). Effectiveness of emotional self-efficacy training on social adjustment and social anxiety in adolescents. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 7(2),69-80

Bearden, T. S., Cassisi, J. E., & Pineda, M. (2003). Neurofeedback training for a patient with thalamic and cortical infarctions. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28(3), 241-253

Bird, E. I. (1987). Psychophysiological processes during rifle shooting. International Journal of Sport Psychology

Coben, R., & Padolsky, I. (2007). Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 5-23

Coben, R., M. Linden, and T.E. Myers, Neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder: a review of the literature. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback, 2010. 35(1): p. 83-105

Collins, D., Powell, G., & Davies, I. (1990). An electroencephalographic study of hemispheric processing patterns during karate performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 223-234

Cortoos, A., De Valck, E., Arns, M., Breteler, M. H., & Cluydts, R. (2010). An exploratory study on the effects of tele-neurofeedback and tele-biofeedback on objective and subjective sleep in patients with primary insomnia. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 35(2), 125-134

Crews, D. J., & Landers, D. M. (1993). Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt: Response. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 25, 1084-1085

Deeny, S. P., Hillman, C. H., Janelle, C. M., & Hatfield, B. D. (2003). Cortico-cortical communication and superior performance in skilled marksmen: an EEG coherence analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25(2), 188-204

Dupee, M. (2008). Exploring a Bio/Neurofeedback Training Intervention To Enhance Psychological Skill&Performance in Sport.Thesis. Oxford University

Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). Ecological validity of neurofeedback: Modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance. Neuroreport, 14(9), 1221-1224

Eskandarnezhad, M., Abdoli, B., Nazari, M., & Vaez Musavi, S. M. (2010). The effects of Neurofeedback training on novice archers performance. Motor behavior, 1(6), 57-74

Faridnia, M., Shojaei, M., Rahimi, A., 2012. The effect of neurofeedback on the anxietyof elite female swimmers. Annals of Biological Research 3, 1020–1028

Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L. Ricardo-Garcell, J. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clinical EEG and neuroscience, 34(3), 145-152

Firoozi, M., & Rostami, R. (2014). Risking Psychological Factors Causing Health Problems of Professional Athletes. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 5(2), 1-15

Gaini, A., Alizade, M., Gharakhanlo, R., Kordi, M., & Vaez Musavi., S. M. (2007). Physical preparation, proficiency and psychic assessment tests of elite athletes in several sports. Tehran: N.O.C.I.R.IRAN publication

Gruzelier, J. H. (2014a). EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 44, 124-141

Gruzelier, J. H. (2014b). EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. II: creativity, the performing arts and ecological validity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 44, 142-158

Gruzelier, J.H., 2009. A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performanceenhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integra-tion. Cognitive Processing 10, 101–110

Gruzelier, J.H., 2012. Enhancing imaginative expression in the performing arts withEEG-neurofeedback. In: Miell, D., MacDonald, R., Hargreaves, D. (Eds.), Musi-cal Imaginations: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Creativity, Performance andPerception. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 332–350

Hadinezhad, A. (2012). Survey psychometric properties of Sport Anxiety Scale between elite athletes of Tehran city. Master Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Tehran center Branch

Hajloo, N. (2016). Psychometric Properties of the Short Form Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2R). Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 7(1),25-40

Hammond, D. (2004). Treatment of the obsessional subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder with neurofeedback. Biofeedback, 32(1), 9-12

Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 14(1), 105-123

Hammond, D.C. (2000). Neurofeedback treatment of depression with the Roshi. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 45-56

Hanin, Y. (2000). Individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model: Emotion–performance relationships in sport. In Y. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 65–89). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Hanin, Y. L. (2003). Performance related emotional states in sport: a qualitative analysis. Paper presented at the Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research

Hanslmayer, S., Sauseng, P., Doppelmayr, M., Schabus, M., & Klimesch, W. (2005). Increasing individual upper alpha by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in human subjects. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30, 1-10

Hartmann, T., Lorenz, I., Müller, N., Langguth, B., & Weisz, N. (2014). The effects of neurofeedback on oscillatory processes related to tinnitus. Brain topography, 27(1), 149-157

Hatfield, B. D., Landers, D. M., & Ray, W. J. (1984). Cognitive processes during self-paced motor performance: An electroencephalographic profile of skilled marksmen. Journal of sport psychology, 6(1), 42-59

Hatfield, B. D., Landers, D. M., & Ray, W. J. (1987). Cardiovascuiar‐CNS Interactions during a Self‐Paced, Intentional Attentive State: Elite Marksmanship Performance. Psychophysiology, 24(5), 542-549

Hirshberg, L. M. (2007). Place of electroencephalographic biofeedback for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7, 315-319

Hoedlmoser, K., Pecherstorfer, T., Gruber, G., Anderer, P., Doppelmayr, M., Klimesch, W., & Schabus, M. (2008). Instrumental conditioning of human sensorimotor rhythm (12–15 Hz) and its impact on sleep as well as declarative learning. Sleep, 31(10), 1401 -1408

Holmes, D. S., Burish, T. G., & Frost, R. O. (1980). Effects of instructions and biofeedback in EEG-alpha production and the effects of EEG-alpha biofeedback training for controlled arousal in a subsequent stressful situation. Journal of Research in Personality, 14, 212-223

Jacobs, E. H. (2006). Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention, mood, social, and developmental deficits. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 55-70

Kaiser, D.A., & Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of neurofeedbackon variables of attention in a large multicentertrial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4 (1), 5-28

Keihani, M., Mirifar, A., Hashemian, P., & Farrokhi., A. (2013). The effect of neurofeedback training on competitive state-anxiety track and field athletics. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 15(59), 225-32

Landers, D. M., Petruzzello, S. J., Salazar, W., Crews, D. J., Kubitz, K. A., Gannon, T. L., & Han, M. (1991). The influence of electrocortical biofeedback on performance in pre-elite archers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 23, 123-129

Leach J, Holmes P, Hirst L, Gruzelier J (2008) Alpha/theta versus SMR training for novice singers/advanced instrumentalists. Rev Esp Neuropsicol 10:62

Linden, M., Habib, T., & Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback and self-regulation, 21(1), 35-49

Lofthouse, N., Arnold, L. E., Hersch, S., Hurt, E., & DeBeus, R. (2011). A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD. Journal of attention disorders, 1087054711427530

Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention deficit disorders (3ed ed.). New York: Guilford Press

Moghadas Tabrizi, Y., & Mesbahi, E. (2015). The Relationship between the Rest Alpha Asymmetry and the Depression and AnxietySymptoms of DASS-21 Questionnaire. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 6(1), 89-98

Mohammadi, M., Taheri, H., Sohrabi, M. (2016). The effects of neurofeedback training on ability of error assessment and performance on elite shooters. Journal of sport management and motor behavior, 12(23), 27-38

Moin al-ghorabaaiee, F., Karamloo, S., & Noferesty, A. (2015). Problem Solving Styles among Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder and Normal Individuals. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 5(4), 131-143

Monastra, V. J., Lynn, S., Linden, M., Lubar, J. F., Gruzelier, J., & La Vaque, T. J. (2006). Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 5-34

Moore, N. C. (2000). A review of EEG biofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders. Clinical EEG and neuroscience, 31(1), 1-6

Nazari, M., Eskandarnezhad, M., Abdoli, B., Vaezmusavi, S. M. (2011). The effects of neurofeedback training on properties of QEEG and athletic performance in archery. Psychological new researches, 22

Nazemi Ardakani, F., Bahrami Ehsan, H., Alipor, A., & Bayat, N. (2016). Effectiveness of religious - spiritual intervention based on Islamic approach on psychological and immune indices in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 6(4), 113- 131

Orlando, P. C., & Rivera, R. O. (2004). Neurofeedback for elementary students with identified learning problems. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8, 5-19

Othmer, S., Othmer, S. F., & Kaiser, D. A. (1999). EEG biofeedback: Training for AD/HD and related disruptive behavior disorders. Chapter in J. A. Incorvaia, B. F. Mark-Goldstein, & D. Tessmer (Eds.), Understanding, Diagnosing, & Treating AD/HD in Children and Adolescents. New York: Aronson, 235-297

Radlo, S. J., Steinberg, G. M., Singer, R. N., Barba, D. A., & Melnikov, A. (2002). The influence of an attentional focus strategy on alpha brain wave activity, heart rate and dart-throwing performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology

Raglin, J. S. (2001). Psychological factors in sport performance. Sports Medicine, 31(12), 875-890

Raymond, J., Varney, C., Parkinson, L.A., & Gruzelier, J.H. (2005). The effect of alpha/ theta neurofeedbackon personality and mood. Cognitive brainre search, 23, 287-292

Ros, T., Moseley, M.J., Bloom, P.A., Benjamin, L., Parkinson, L.A., & Gruzelier, J.H. (2009). Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG Neurofeedback. BMC Neuroscience, 10, 87–97

Rostami, R., Sadeghi, H., Karami, K. A., Abadi, M. N., & Salamati, P. (2012). The effects of neurofeedback on the improvement of rifle shooters' performance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16, 264-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10874208.2012.730388

Salaman mahini, M. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback training on athletic performance of national team chess players. Master Thesis. University of Tehran 

Salazar, W., Landers, D. M., Petruzzello, S. J., Han, M., Crews, D. J., & Kubitz, K. A. (1990). Hemispheric asymmetry, cardiac response, and performance in elite archers. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 61(4), 351-359

Scott, W. C., Kaiser, D., Othmer, S., & Sideroff, S. I. (2005). Effects of an EEG biofeedback protocol on a mixed substance abusing population. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 31(3), 455-469

Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Schutz, R. W. (1990). Measurement and correlates of sport-specific cognitive and somatic trait anxiety: The Sport Anxiety Scale. Anxiety research, 2(4), 263-280

Smith, W. D. (2008). The effect of neurofeedback training on PTSD symptoms of depression and attention problems among military veterans: ProQuest

Sokhadze, T. M., Cannon, R. L., & Trudeau, D. L. (2008). EEG biofeedback as a treatment for substance use disorders: review, rating of efficacy and recommendations for further research. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(1), 5-43

Sterman, M. B. (2000). Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning. Clinical EEG and neuroscience, 31(1), 45-55

Tan, G., Thornby, J., Hammond, D. C., Strehl, U., Canady, B., Arnemann, K., & Kaiser, D. A. (2009). Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy. Clinical EEG and neuroscience, 40(3), 173-179

Tansey, M. A. (1991). Wechsler (wisc‐r) changes following treatment of learning disabilities via EEG biofeedback raining in a private practice setting. Australian Journal of Psychology, 43(3), 147-153

Thornton, K. (2000). Improvement/rehabilitation of memory functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 15(6), 1285-1296

Unterrainer, H., Chen, M., & Gruzelier, J. (2011). EEG-Neurofeedback and psychodynamic psychotherapy in adolescent anhedonia with substance misuse: A single case study. Neuroscience Letters, 500, 28

Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., & Gruzelier, J. (2003). The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75-85

Wilson, V., Ainsworth, M., & Bird, E. (1985). Assessment of attentional abilities in male volleyball athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 16(4), 296-306

Zhu, D., Li, Y., & Yang, J. (2009). Neurofeedback Treatment of College Students’ Test on Anxiety, Depression, Personality, and Mood. Journal of electronic science and technology of china, 7(3)