تأثیر تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه ای بر توجه انتخابی در شرایط تکلیف دوگانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار رفتار حرکتی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 کارشناسی ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه­ای بر توجه انتخابی در شرایط تکلیف دوگانه انجام گرفت. این پژوهش از نوع نیمه تجربی بود. بدین منظور تعداد 28 نفر از دانشجویان دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز با میانگین سنی 46/2±32/25 سال به صورت نمونه­گیری در دسترس انتخاب، و سپس به طور تصادفی به دو گروه آزمایشی و شم تقسیم شدند. از تمامی شرکت­کنندگان آزمون تکلیف دوگانه اثر استروپ قبل و بعد از تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه­ای به عمل آمد. این آزمون شامل چهار فاصله زمانی 50، 100، 300 و 900 هزارم ثانیه بین دو محرک در سه حالت اثر استروپ در شرایط تکلیف دوگانه بود. نتایج آزمون تحلیل واریانس مرکب نشان داد که میانگین زمان واکنش گروه آزمایشی به طور معناداری از گروه شم بهتر بود؛ در نتیجه تحریک الکتریکی قطعه پیش­پیشانی قشر مغز باعث کاهش اثر دوره بی­پاسخی روانشناختی می­شود. پس تحریک الکتریکی، ظرفیت توجه یا سرعت پردازش اطلاعات را در انسان بهبود می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulus on Selective Attention in Dual Task Paradigm

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rasool Abedanzadeh 1
  • Saeed Alboghobish 2
چکیده [English]

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulus on selective attention in dual task paradigm. By semi-experimental method 28 students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz were recruited (mean age: 25.32±2.46) by at available sampling method and assigned into experimental and Sham equally groups. Participants were asked to perform dual task test of Stroop’s effect  before and after transcranial stimulus. The test included four stimulus onset synchronized of 50, 100, 300 and 900 thousandth of a second between two stimuli in three Stroop’s effect conditions with dual task paradigm. The results of the mix analysis of variance revealed that the mean of reaction time in experimental group was better than the other one (p<0.05), therefore, it can result that the transcranial stimulus of prefrontal cortex method decreased the effect of psychological refractory period. Thus this method can improve the capacity of selective attention or information process in humankind

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Psychological refrectory period
  • Stroop’s effect
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Information proccecing
  • Reaction Time
Alboghbish, S., Shetab Boushehri, N., Afkham, D., & Abedanzadeh, R. (2017). R. Assessment of Reaction Time in Congruent and Incongruent Dual Task Stroop Effect in the Elderly. Qom University Medicine Science Journal, 11(7):66-74. (in Persian)

Arkan, A., & Yaryari, F. (2014). The Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) on the Working Memory in Healthy People. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, (2) 2: 11-17. (in Persian).

Besharat, M. Rostami, R. Karimi, M., & Farahani, H. (2015). The effectiveness of an augmented tDCS and ABMT on reducing food craving in obese individuals. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 6(3),19-37. (in Persian).

Bikson, M., Inoue, M., Akiyama, H., Deans, J.K., Fox, J.E., & Miyakawa, H. (2004) Effects of uniform extracellular DC electric fields on excitability in rat hippocampal slices in vitro. Journal of Physiology. 557(1):175–190

Brunoni, A. R., Nitsche, M. A., Bolognini, N., Bikson, M., Wagner, T., Merabet, L., & et al. (2012). Clinical research with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): challenges and future directions. Brain Stimulation, 5(3), 175-195.

DaSilva, A. F., Volz, M. S., Bikson, M., & Fregni, F. (2011). Electrode positioning and montage in transcranial direct current stimulation. Journal of Visualized Experiments, (51), e2744-e2744.

Depue, B. E., Burgess, G. C., Willcutt, E. G., Ruzic, L., & Banich, M. T. (2010). Inhibitory control of memory retrieval and motor processing associated with the right lateral prefrontal cortex: evidence from deficits in individuals with ADHD. Neuropsychologia, 48(13), 3909-3917.

Dick, D. M., Smith, G., Olausson, P., Mitchell, S. H., Leeman, R. F., O'Malley, S. S., & et al. (2010). Review: understanding the construct of impulsivity and its relationship to alcohol use disorders. Addiction Biology, 15(2), 217-226.

Fagot, C., & Pashler, H. (1992). Making Two Responses to a Single Object: Implications for the Central Attentional Bottleneck. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 0096-1523/92/$3.00.

Fahimi, F. Arjmandnia, A., & Fathabadi, J. (2014). Investigating Efficacy of “Working Memory Training Software on Students Working Memory. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly. 5(2), 65-80. (in Persian).

Fischer, R., & Plessow, F. (2015). Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks. Frontiers in Psychology. 6, Article 1366.

Gold, J., & Shadlen, M. (2007). The neural basis of decision making. Annual Review Neuroscience. 30, 535–574.

Hassanzadeh, S & Ahmadi, A. (2015). Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Training and its Generalization Effect. Psychological Research Quarterly. 6(1), 25-46. (in Persian).

Hsu, W. Y., Zanto, T. P., Anguera, J. A., Lin, Y. Y., & Gazzaley, A. (2015). Delayed enhancement of multitasking performance: effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the prefrontal cortex. Cortex, 69, 175-185.

Kapoula, T. Bonnet, A. Bourtoire, P. Demule, E. Fauvel, C. Quilicci, C., & et al. (2010). Poor Stroop performances in 15-year-old dyslexic teenagers. Experimental Brain Research, 203:419–425.

Logan, G. D. & Gordon, R. D. (2001). Executive control of visual attention in dual-task situations. Psychological Review, 108(2), 393.

Logothetis, N. K. (2008). What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI. Nature, 453(7197), 869.

Nitsche, M. A., & Paulus, W. (2001). Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. Journal of Physiology. 527:633–639.

Nitsche, M. A., Seeber, A., Frommann, K., Klein, C. C., Rochford, C., Nitsche, M. S., & et al. (2005). Modulating parameters of excitability during and after transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex. Journal of Physiology. 568, 291–303.

Overtoom, C. C., Kenemans, J. L., Verbaten, M. N., Kemner, C., van der Molen, M. W., van Engeland, H., & et al. (2002). Inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a psychophysiological study of the stop task. Biological psychiatry, 51(8), 668-676.

Polanía, R., Paulus, W., Antal, A., & Nitsche, M. A. (2011). Introducing graph theory to track for neuroplastic alterations in the resting human brain: a transcranial direct current stimulation study. Neuroimage, 54(3), 2287-2296.

Rostami, R., Besharat, M.A., Karimi, M., & Farahani, H. (2016). The effectiveness of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the brain function of obese individuals. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 7(3), 127-145.

Ruohonen, J., & Karhu, J. (2012). tDCS possibly stimulates glial cells. Clin Neurophysiol. 123(10):2006–2009.

Shahabi, R. (2016). Designing and developing a Comprehensive Scale of Cognitive and Psychomotor Abilities for Children. Psychological Research Quarterly. 7(3),71-101. (in Persian)

Soltaninejad, Z., Nejati, V., & Ekhtiari, H. (2015). Effect of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Remediation of Inhibitory Control on right Inferio Frontal Gyrus in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3(4): 1-9. (in Persian)

Soutschek, A., Taylor, P. C., & Schubert, T. (2016). The role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in central processing limitation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Experimental brain research, 234(9), 2447-2455.

Strobach, T., & Antonenko, D. (2017). tDCS-induced effects on executive functioning and their cognitive mechanisms: a review. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 1(1), 49-64.

Strobach, T., Soutschek, A., Antonenko, D., Flöel, A., & Schubert, T. (2015). Modulation of executive control in dual tasks with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Neuropsychologia, 68, 8-20.

Strobach,T. Schütz,A & Schuber, T. (2015). On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies. Frontiers in Psychology. Mini Review. Volume 6, Article 403.

Takai, H., Tsubaki, A., Sugawara, K., Miyaguchi, S., Oyanagi, K., Matsumoto, T., & et al. (2016). Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Primary Motor Cortex on Cerebral Blood Flow: A Time Course Study Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy. Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXVII. (4-42) 335-341.

Utz K. s, Dimova V, Oppenlander K., & Kerkhoff, G. (2010). Electrified minds: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) as methods of non-invasive brain stimulation in neuropsychology- A review of current data and future implications. Neuropsychologia. 48(10): 2789- 2810.

Vaidya, C. J., Austin, G., Kirkorian, G., Ridlehuber, H. W., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., & et al. (1998). Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(24), 14494-14499.

Zylberberg, A. Ouellette, B. Sigman, M., & Roelfsema, R. (2012). Decision Making during the Psychological Refractory Period. Current Biology. 22, 1795–1799.