فرایند روانشناختی خودتوسعه ای رهبران دانشگاهی (یک مطالعه فراترکیب)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده روانشناسی وعلوم تربیتی دانشگاه، تهران، ایران

2 داﻧﺸﺠﻮی دﮐﺘﺮی. رﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ آﻣﻮزش ﻋﺎﻟﯽ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺗﻬﺮان، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین فرایند روان ­شناختی خودتوسعه ‌ای رهبران دانشگاهی انجام شده است. روش پژوهش حاضر کیفی، و از نوع فراترکیب بوده است. جامعه پژوهش شامل کلیه منابع مرتبط به تعداد 2670 منبع بوده که ابتدا تعداد 250 منبع بر اساس چکیده انتخاب شد. سپس 67 منبع بر اساس محتوا گزینش شد که در نهایت 58 منبع به عنوان منابع مرتبط، به روش کدگذاری در سه سطح گزاره (کد)، مفهوم و مقوله تحلیل شد. به منظور بررسی کیفیت داده ‌ها، اعتبار (باورپذیری) و اعتماد (اطمینان ‌پذیری) یافته ‌ها تأمین شده است. یافته ‌ها نشان دادند فرایند روان ­شناختی خودتوسعه ‌ای شامل هشت مؤلفه (گام) کلیدی بوده است که چهار گام اولیه آن صرفاً روان ­شناختی و عبارتند از: 1) خوداندیشی و خودتأملی، 2) خودشناسی و خودآگاهی، 3) خودانگیزشی، 4) خودآغازگری. چهار گام بعدی، روان ­شناختی-مدیریتی بوده و شامل 5) انتخاب روش خودتوسعه ‌ای (ساختاریافته، هدایت ‌شده و فردی)، 6) کاربست مکانیزم‌ های خودتوسعه ‌ای (خودرهبری، خودمدیریتی، خودنظم‌دهی و خودراهبری یادگیری، 7) نظارت و ارزیابی خودتوسعه‌ ای (خودکنترلی،خودنظارتی و خودارزیابی) و 8) مسئولیت و پاسخگویی (خودمسئولیت ‌پذیری، خودتعهدی و خودپاسخگویی) به اقدامات خودتوسعه ‌ای می ‌باشند. در این پژوهش، ابعاد روانشناختی خودتوسعه ‌ای رهبران دانشگاهی مورد تأکید بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Psychological self-Development Process of Academic Leaders (A Meta-Synthesis Study)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khodayar Abili 1
  • Ebrahim Mazari 2
1 Professor Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Educational Managemen, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study aims to explain the psychological self-developmental process of academic leaders. The method of this research is qualitativeand a kind of meta-synthesis. The research population consisted of all the related sources about 2670 sources. First, 250 sources were selected based on abstract. Then, 67 sources were selected based on the content, which eventually analyzed 58 sources as related resources by coding in three levels of proposition (code), concept, and category. In order to verify the quality of data, validity and reliability have been provided.The results showed that the psychological self-developmental process consists of eight key components that 4 steps were psychological that consist of: 1) Self-thinking and self-actualization, 2) self-knowledge and self-awareness, 3) self-motivation, 4) self-initiation, and  the next 4 steps were  psychological-managerial such as 5) selection of self-development methods(structured, guided and individual) 6) applying self-development mechanisms (self-leadership, self-management, self-regulation, self-directed learning, 7) self-development evaluating and monitoring (self-control, self-monitoring and self-evaluation), and finally, responsibility and accountability to self-development activates (self- responsibility, self-commitment and self-accountability( that in this research, psychological dimensions of academic leadership have been emphasized.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Self-development
  • academic leadership
  • Meta-synthesis

 

Abbema, A.E. (2016. (The Motivational Leader: A Self-Determination Approach. University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Andrén, U. (2012). Self-awareness and self-knowledge in professions: Something we are or a skill we learn. Kompendiet, Göteborg.

Babooa, s.k. (2013). Modern leadership development and excellence: Leadership excellence. AuthorHouse, UK.

Bolden, R., Gosiling, J., Peters, K., Ryan, M. (2012). Academic Leadership: Changing conceptions, identities and experiences in UK higher education. Published by the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education.

Bowman, R. (2015). Teachers as leaders: A commitment to self-Development. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 19 (1): 1-10.

Boyce, L.A., Zaccaro, S.J., and Wisecarver, M.Z. (2010). Propensity for self-development of leadership attributes: Understanding, predicting, and supporting performance of leader self-development. The Leadership Quarterly, 21: 159–178.

Braun, S., Nazlic, T., Weisweiler, S., Pawlowska, B., Peus, C., Frey, D. (2009). Effective Leadership Development in Higher Education: Individual and Group Level Approaches. Journal of Leadership Education, 8(1):195-206.

Burgoyne, J. (1981). Moving Forward from Self-Development. Management Education and Development. 12 (2): 67-80.

Burgoyne, J., (2008). Learning Theory and the Construction of Self: What Kinds of People Do We Create through the Theories of Learning that We Apply to Their Development?. Learning Theory and the Construction of Self, 1-16.

Burgoyne, J., Pedler, M. (2012). Valuing leadership development: a practices and challenge approach. Journal of the Association for Management Education and Development, 19 (4): 26-72.

Coelho, Anne. (2010). The Erotics of Accountability: A Psychological Approach. Revision, 31(1), 36-44.

Cortina, J., Zaccaro, S., McFarland, L., Baughman, K., Wood, G., & Odin, E. (2004). Promoting realistic self-assessment as the basis for effective leader self-development. ARI Research Leader Development Research Unit(1-69).

Daft, R. (2011). First, lead yourself. Leader to Leader, (60): 28-33.

Daudelin, M. W. (1996). Learning through experience through reflection. Organizational Dynamics, 36-48.

Day, D. V., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2004). Toward a science of leader development. In D. V. Day, S. J. Zaccaro, & S. M. Halpin (Eds.), Leader development for transforming organization (pp. 383−399). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Donaldson, S. I., & Dollwet, M. (2013). Taming the waves and wild horses of positive organizational psychology. In A. B. Bakker (Ed.), Advances in positive psychology, (pp. 1-21). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Duval, T. S., & Wicklund, R. A. (1972). A theory of objective self- awareness. New York: Academic Press.

Eric, P. & Jack Amitabh (2006). From Methodological Triangulation in Management Research, Management Research News, Department of Quantitative Analysis and Operations Management. College of Business Administration, University of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA: Cincinnati, 29(6): 345-357.

Gmelch, W.H. (2016). CollegeThe Call to Academic Leadership: Department Chair Roles & Tradeoffs.  Center for Academic Leadership, University of San Francisco.

Hinton, K.L. (2017). Self-responsibility and social responsibility. University of Nevada, Available at: https://www.unce.unr.edu/publications/files/cy/other/fs9396.pdf.

Kaiser, R. B., & Kaplan, R. B. (2006). The deeper work of executive development: Outgrowing sensitivities. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 5(4), 463-483.

Knowles, M. S. (2000). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. New York: Association Press.

Kolb, D.A. (1984), Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of Learning and Development, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Lester, D., and Lester, C. (2016).  12 Steps of Self-Leadership: The Difference Maker's Guide to Living and Leading on Purpose. FriesenPress.

London M, Holtlarsen, Thisted L N (2013). Relationships Between Feedback and Self- Development. Group & Organization Management, 24(2) 5-12

Love, A. (2012). Passion and purpose: Leading from the inside out. Leader to Leader, (65): 50-56.

Luthans, Fred. Luthans, Kyle, W. Lutahans, Brett, C. (2004). Positive psychological capital: Beyond human and social capital. Business Horizons, 47(1): 45-50.

Mazari, E. (2018). Developing leadership self-development model for administrators at universities and higher education institutions (Case: University of Tehran). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Tehran, Iran.

Mazari.E., Zamani, M. (2016). The influence of psychological-behavioral mechanisms of self-development (Self-regulation, Self-management, Self-leadership and self-directed learning) on human capital. Journal of Applied Psychological Research, 7(3):39-54.

Miller, P. (2012). Self-reflection: the key to effective leadership. SIM Today’s Manager, 1-12

Mordhah, N. (2012). Self – Accountability: The Link between Self-Accountability and Accountability in Islam. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(5): 240-245.

Neck C.P., & Manz C.C. (2013). Mastering Self-Leadership. Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education

Nesbit , P (2007). Self-awareness, self-reflection and self-regulation: an integrated model of managerial self-development. Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Australi.

Orvis, K. A., & Leffler, G. P. (2011). Individual and contextual factors: An interactionist approach to understanding employee self-development. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 172-177.

Perreault, G . (2001). Leadership and self0knowledge. Conference Theme: A Leadership Odyssey. University of Northern Iowa.

Reichard, R. J, Johnson, S. K. (2011). Leader self-development as organizational strategy. The Leadership Quarterly 22: 33–42.

Rietveld, J. (2017). Self-development the key leadership growth. Christian Coaching Institute. Retrieved March 28, 2017 from http://www. Christian coaching institute. com.au/blog/3-key-areas-of-leadership-development.

Rothstein, M.G., Burke, R.J. (2017). Self- assessment and leadership development: an overview. Downloaded from Elgar Online at 02/23/2017 09:58:51AM via communal account

Siddique, M.A., Aslam, H.D., Khan, M and Fatima, U. (2011). Impact of academic Leadership on Faculty’s Motivation, and Organizational Effectiveness in higher education system. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (8):184-191.

Strum, R.E., Taylor, S.N., Atwater, E., Braddy, P.W. (2014). Leader self-awareness: An examination and implications of women’s under-prediction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, J. Organiz. Behav. 35, 657–677.

Swann, W. B., Jr., Pelham, B. W., & Krull, D. S. (1989). Agreeable fancy or disagreeable truth? Reconciling self-enhancement and self-verification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 782-791.

Taylor, S. N. (2010). Redefining leader self-awareness by integrating the second component of self-awareness. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(4), 57–68.

Trope, Y., & Neter, E. (1994). Reconciling competing motives in self-evaluation: The role of self-control in feedback seeking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 646-657.

U.S. Department of the Army (2015). Leader development. https:// armypubs. us.army.mil /doctrine/ index.html.

Zaccaro, S. J., Wood, G., & Herman, J. (2006). Developing the adaptive and global leader: HRM strategies within a career-long perspective. In R. J. Burke & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The human resources revolution: Why putting people first matters Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.