ارتقا تفکر علمی در کودکان پیش‌دبستانی: طراحی بسته آموزشی مبتنی بر رویکرد تجربی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مشاوره و روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی دانشگاه فرهنگیان، ایران، تهران

4 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی تربیتی و مشاوره، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران، تهران

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تفکر علمی از ورای ادبیات و بررسی نحوه ارتقا آن در کودکان پیش‌دبستانی بود. این نوع تفکر، مرتبط با روان‌شناسی شناختی بوده و اغلب به‌جای این‌که پدیده‌ای در محیط باشد، در ذهن افراد رخ می‌دهد. با توجه به تأثیر پررنگ دوران پیش از دبستان در پیشرفت تفکر کودکان و موفقیت‌های بعدی تحصیلی، ضروری است تا آموزش تفکر علمی در مراکز آموزشی پیش‌دبستانی موردتوجه قرار گیرد. بر پایه بررسی منابع موجود، بسته آموزشی ارتقا تفکر علمی طراحی شد. روش آموزش تفکر به شکل اجرای نیمه‌آزمایشی، در قالب جلسات مداخله تک‌آزمودنی بود. جامعه آماری این مطالعه متمرکز بردو مرکز پیش‌دبستانیشهر تهران در سال تحصیلی 97-1396 انجام شد و تعداد آماری این دو مرکز شامل 85 آزمودنی (38 دختر و 47 پسر) بود. بر همین ‌اساس، جهت بررسی مقدماتی، نمونه‌ای شامل 4 آزمودنی (2 دختر و 2 پسر) به‌صورت در دسترس انتخاب شدند و در طی هشت جلسه تحت آموزش تفکر علمی قرار گرفتند. در این روش، کودکان به‌صورت فعال در فرایند یادگیری درگیر و پاسخ آنان نسبت به محتوای هر جلسه آموزشی به‌صورت فردی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که جلسات آموزش تفکر علمی می‌تواند به یادگیرندگان کمک نماید تا در طول فرآیند یادگیری، مسائل را با شیوه تفکر علمی حل نمایند. پیشنهاد می‌شود، جهت اعتبارسنجی بسته طراحی شده آموزش تفکر علمی، اثربخشی آن بر سایر مهارت‌های شناختی کودکان پیش‌دبستانی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Promoting of Scientific Thinking in Preschool Children: Designing a Training Package Based on Empirical Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Lida Malekzade 1
  • Elaheh Hejazi 2
  • Mahmoud Talkhabi 3
  • Zahra Naghsh 4
1 Department of Educational Psychology, Psychology and Educational science Faculty, university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Educational Psychology, Psychology and Educational science Faculty, university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 University of Farhangian, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Educational Psychology, Psychology and Educational science Faculty, university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to explore scientific thinking beyond the literature of scientific thinking and to study its enhancement in preschool children. Scientific thinking is a kind of thinking related to cognitive psychology and it often occurs in people's mind rather than being a phenomenon in the environment. Given the significant impact of preschool period on children's thinking development and subsequent academic achievement, it is important to consider teaching scientific thinking in preschool education. Based on investigating available resources, the educational package for the improvement of scientific thinking was designed. The method for teaching thinking was planned in the form of semi-experimental study and single subject intervention sessions. Accordingly, as a pilot study, a sample including 4 subjects (2 girls and 2 boys) was selected through convenience sampling and trained in scientific thinking during eight sessions. Children were actively involved in the learning process and their response to each training session was evaluated individually. The results of this study indicated that teaching the scientific thinking can help learners to resolve the issues through scientific thinking. It is suggested that in order to validate the designed package of scientific thinking education, its effectiveness on other cognitive skills of preschool children be examined.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Scientific Thinking
  • Problem solving
  • Preschool Child
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