تأثیر آموزش زودهنگام بر عملکرد و یادداری تکلیف توالی حرکتی: شواهدی از دوره‌های حساس یادگیری حرکتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد جامع شوشتر، شوشتر، ایران

چکیده

هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر آموزش زودهنگام بر عملکرد و یادداری تکلیف توالی حرکتی بود. پژوهش حاضر به‌لحاظ هدف از نوع کاربردی و از نظر گردآوری داده‌ها، نیمه‌آزمایشی بود. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه دانشجویان و خدمه دانشکده علوم دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز در نیم سال دوم 1397 بودند که از بین آن‌ها به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و در دسترس، 36 آزمودنی پسر راست دست، دامنه سنی 18 تا 27 سال، سالم از نظر سیستم عصبی (فاقد بیماری‌های نورولوژیک) انتخاب و در سه گروه 12 نفری آموزش زودهنگام، دیرهنگام و گواه گمارده شدند. در این مطالعه، برای گردآوری اطلاعات و ارزیابی نمونه‌ها از پرسشنامه سلامت عمومی (GHQ)، آزمون مختصر وضعیت روانی- شناختی (MMSE)، مقیاس کلی ارزیابی تمرین و تجربه کار با موسیقی، رایانه و تایپ (GIMTRE) و نرم‌افزار تکلیف ارائه محرک‌های متوالی (SRTT) استفاده شد. در این پژوهش، کل مداخله شامل دو فاز (اکتساب و یادداری) و 10 مرحله پاسخ بود که طی آن‌ها نتایج عملکرد گروه‌ها با هم مقایسه شد. جهت تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از آمار توصیفی، آزمون شاپیرو- ویلک، t همبسته و تحلیل واریانس دوراهه و یک‌راهه استفاده شد. در مرحله اکتساب، در دو مؤلفه زمان و دقت پاسخ، در تمام بلوک‌های حرکتی بین گروه‌های آزمودنی تفاوت معناداری وجود داشت و این تفاوت، به‌نفع گروه آموزش زودهنگام بوده است. در آزمون یادداری نیز، این تفاوت بین گروه‌ها مشهود بود و گروه آموزش زودهنگام سریع‌تر و دقیق‌تر از دیگر گروه‌ها به محرک‌ها پاسخ دادند. این یافته‌ها از احتمال نوعی دوره حساس در دوران کودکی و غنی‌تر کردن آموزش حرکتی از طریق تمرین و تجربه، جهت بهبود عملکرد حرکتی را در مراحل بعدی زندگی حمایت می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Early Instruction on Performance and Retention of Motor Sequence Task: Evidence for Sensitive Period in Motor Learning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayed Kavos Salehi 1
  • Aziz Moradi 2
1 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran
چکیده [English]

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of early instruction on performance and retention of motor sequence task. The research method was applied and quasi-experimental type. The statistical population included all students and staff of the Faculty of Science in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in the second half of 2017, that among them, 36 right-handed subjects, aged 18 to 27 years, indicating healthy nervous system (lack of neurological diseases) were selected using purposeful and available sampling method. They were divided into three groups of 12 subjects, including the early training, late training, and control group. In this study, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), General Index of Musical Training and Related Experience (GIMTRE), and Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) software were used to collect information and evaluate the samples. The intervention consisted of two phases (acquisition and retention) and 10 stages for response to sequential stimuli during which the results of the groups’ performance were compared. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Shapiro-Wilk test, independent-t, mixed and one way ANOVA test. In the acquisition phase, for the two components of response time and accuracy, there was a significant difference in all the blocks between the groups and this difference was in favor of the early training group. In addition, in the retention test, the difference between the groups was evident, and the early training group responded to stimuli faster and more accurately than the late training and control groups.These findings support the idea that there may be a sensitive period during childhood in which enriching motor training through practice and experience can enhance motor performance in the next stages.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sensitive period
  • motor learning
  • motor sequence
Ashe, J., Lungu, O. V., Basford, A. T., & Lu, X. (2006). Cortical control of motor sequences. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 16(2), 213-221.
Bailey, J. A., & Penhune, V. B. (2010). Rhythm synchronization performance and auditory working memory in early-and late-trained musicians. Experimental Brain Research. 204(1), 91-101.
Bailey, J., & Penhune, V. B. (2012). A sensitive period for musical training: contributions of age of onset and cognitive abilities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1252(1), 163-170.
Beitel, R. E., Schreiner, C. E., Cheung, S. W., Wang, X., & Merzenich, M. (2003). Reward-dependent plasticity in the primary auditory cortex of adult monkeys trained to discriminate temporally modulated signals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100(19), 11070-11075.
Casey, B., Giedd, J., & Thomas, K. (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology. 54(1-3), 241-257.
Costa-Giomi, E., Gilmour, R., Siddell, J., & Lefebvre, E. (2001). Absolute pitch, early musical instruction and spatial abilities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.930, 394–396
Gaser, C., & Schlaug, G. (2003). Brain structure differences between musicians and non-musicians. Journal of Neuroscience. 23(27), 9240-9245.
Green, R. E., & Shanks, D. R. (1993). On the existence of independent explicit and implicit learning systems: An examination of some evidence. Memory & Cognition. 21(3), 304-317.
Hansel, C. (2019). Deregulation of synaptic plasticity in autism. Neuroscience Letters. 688, 58-61.
Huttenlocher, P. R., & Dabholkar, A. S. (1997). Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. Journal of comparative Neurology. 387(2), 167-178.
Knudsen, E. I. (2004). Sensitive periods in the development of the brain and behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 16(8), 1412-1425.
Koeneke, S., Lutz, K., Wüstenberg, T., & Jäncke, L. (2004). Long-term training affects cerebellar processing in skilled keyboard players. Neuroreport. 15(8), 1279-1282.
Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). Biological Foundations of Language. New York: Wiley), pp. 397-416.
Luby, J. L., Belden, A., Harms, M. P., Tillman, R., & Barch, D. M. (2016). Preschool is a sensitive period for the influence of maternal support on the trajectory of hippocampal development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113(20), 5742-5747.
McMorris, T. (2014). Acquisition and performance of sports skills. John Wiley & Sons.
Miyazaki, K. I., & Rakowski, A. (2002). Recognition of notated melodies by possessors and nonpossessors of absolute pitch. Perception & Psychophysics. 64(8), 1337-1345.
Moisello, C., Crupi, D., Tunik, E., Quartarone, A., Bove, M., Tononi, G., & Ghilardi, M. F. (2009). The serial reaction time task revisited: a study on motor sequence learning with an arm-reaching task. Experimental Brain Research. 194(1), 143-155.
Nejati, V., Garusi Farshi, M. T., Ashayeri, H., & Aghdasi, M. T. (2007). Dual task interference in youth and elderly in explicit and implicit sequence learning. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 23(8), 801-804.
Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2007). Will they catch up? The role of age at cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 50(34), 1048-1062.
Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology. 19(1), 1-32.
Payne, V. G., & Isaacs, L. D. (2017). Human motor development: A lifespan approach. Routledge.
Penhune, V. B. (2011). Sensitive periods in human development: evidence from musical training. Cortex. 47(9), 1126-1137.
Penhune, V. B., Zatorre, R. J., & Feindel, W. H. (1999). The role of auditory cortex in retention of rhythmic patterns as studied in patients with temporal lobe removals including Heschls gyrus. Neuropsychologia. 37(3), 315-331.
Salehi, S. K., Sheikh, M., Hemayattalab, R., & Humaneyan, D. (2016). The effect of different ages levels and explicit-implicit knowledge on motor sequence learning. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education. 11(18), 13157-65.
Savion-Lemieux, T., & Penhune, V. (2005). The effects of practice and delay on motor skill learning and retention. Experimental Brain Research. 161(4), 423-431.
Savion-Lemieux, T., Bailey, J. A., & Penhune, V. B. (2009). Developmental contributions to motor sequence learning. Experimental Brain Research. 195(2), 293-306.
Schneider, P., Scherg, M., Dosch, H. G., Specht, H. J., Gutschalk, A., & Rupp, A. (2002). Morphology of Heschl’s gyrus reflects enhanced activation in the auditory cortex of musicians. Nature Neuroscience. 5(7), 688-694.
Sowell, E. R., Thompson, P. M., Leonard, C. M., Welcome, S. E., Kan, E., & Toga, A. W. (2004). Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and brain growth in normal children. Journal of Neuroscience. 24(38), 8223-8231.
Thomas, K. M., & Nelson, C. A. (2001). Serial reaction time learning in preschool-and school-age children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 79(4), 364-387.
Tober, C. L., & Pollak, S. D. (2005). Motor development of post-institutionalized children across time. In Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, GA.
Walker, M. P. (2005). A refined model of sleep and the time course of memory formation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 28(1), 51-64.
Walker, M. P., Brakefield, T., Seidman, J., Morgan, A., Hobson, J. A., & Stickgold, R. (2003). Sleep and the time course of motor skill learning. Learning & Memory. 10(4), 275-284.
Watanabe, D., Savion-Lemieux, T., & Penhune, V. B. (2007). The effect of early musical training on adult motor performance: evidence for a sensitive period in motor learning. Experimental Brain Research. 176(2), 332-340.
Weber-Fox, C., & Neville, H. J. (2001). Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open-and closed-class words. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 44(1), 1338–1353
Zatorre, R. J. (2003). Absolute pitch: a model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function. Nature Neuroscience. 6(7), 692-695.